Atomic clock

You already heard this expression? She is used to mention itself to some thingthat functions direitinho, with regularity to all test.

The atomic clock is moved by the radioactivity emitted for a cesium rock. It measures the time in nanoseconds (or one bilionésimo of seconds). But, exactly thus, he delays 1 each according to 3 million years!

That it clock better only more necessary of the world, developed for one has equipped of American scientists German and. It uses a mercury atom as combustible, and counts on the aid of a laser ray.

This super clock divides as in a quatrilhão: the femtossegundos. Most incredible it is that it alone according to delays 1 each 3 billion years!

Storms of frogs and sapos

Although to be a phenomenon very rare the “rain” of frogs, sapos and other small animals as fish and lagartixas already was registered in some places of the world. But it does not start to think about Biblical plagues because the fall of the sky of these unfortunate bichinhos can easily be explained scientifically.

The cause in the truth is singela well. The ascending current air forts that we find in the become ones or storms of high intensity can absorb or push for top any object or animal that has not been enough prevented to look a shelter. For this nobody hears to say in rain of moles or rabbits, that quickly look shelter in storm case.

A time pushed for the nucleus of the storm or Tornado, chains inside keep the ascending them of clouds, being fustigated by forts airflows until the storm loses intensity. There then, everything what he had been absorbed for the storm yields before the law of the gravity and falls, creating a true “rain”.

When we study the airflows that if find inside of storms see that he is not so strange that this happens, since the 200 the ascending winds can arrive km/h, capable to launch for high the any object that has been absorbed. This phenomenon already killed some practitioners of wing-delta who, for a reliable excess, had flied close excessively to a Tornado and had finished being pushed until its “top”, more than the 11 a thousand meters of height.

To this height the temperatures are so low that any alive being dies frozen. Some pilots had exactly arrived to try to get loose itself of the wing-delta to launch itself in free fall, but the winds were so intense that they had been pushed for top in the same way.

The bite strongest of the world

The animal with the bite strongest of the world is the aligátor of the Mississippi, a cousin of the alligator found in the quagmires of the Mississippi and other states southeastern of the United States. Bocada of it reaches 1000 kilos almost, the equivalent to place a sharp set of teeth in a part of its body and, after that, to locate on it one another object of 1 ton! To calculate the intensity of the bite of animals, one of the methods it is to make with that the animal bites a device that registers the power of the attack. As the animals nor always bite with the same force, the results vary. Here, we use as reference the work of Gregory Erickson and Kent Vliet, of the State University of the Flórida, and Brady Barr, the canal National Geographic.
The Seven Peaks
The Seven Peaks are a set of mountains formed by the higher ground positions in each one of the continents. The denominationbecame popular enters the montanhistas in 1985, due to publication of the book of Dick Bass, call Seven Summits. The points are: Kilimanjaro, in the Tanzânia (Africa), with 5.895 height m; McKinley, in the United States (Am. of the North), with 6.193 m; Aconcágua, in Argentina (Am. of the South), with 6.962 m; Vinson, in the Antartic, with 4.897 m; Everest, in the Nepal (Asia), with 8.850 m; Elbro, in Russia (Europe), with 5.641 m; e Kosciusko, in Australia (Oceania), with 2.228 m. Curious detail is that, in accordance with this classification, the North America and of the South are considered continent different (where will be that it was for Central America).


One of the most powerful of the twelve deity Greeks of the Olimpo, virginalgoddess of the wisdom, intelligence, the peace and the war, protector of the life politics, sciences and arts, and also of the manual ability, identified with the old Italian deity Press, protector of Rome, the craftsmen, poets, professors and doctors, from the third century B.C. Son of Zeus with Métis, its first wife, left the head of Zeus, already adult and completely seted for the war. Its distrustful father later warned by its Gaia grandmother of whom Métis would give a son to it and that it would destronaria it to this, as well as it destronara Cronos and, this, Uranus, used of a scheme, convincing its wife if to transform into a different animal. Métis, imprudent, was changedded into a fly and it used to advantage the chance it engoliu and it. However, Métis already was pregnant and the gestation passed to the head of Zeus.

One day Zeus felt one strong migraine and Hefesto, the god blacksmith and of the fire, it opened it with an axe the order of the proper Zeus, where it left already adult, with helmet, armor and shield. It became favourite it of the father and together with it divided the power of storms and lightning and used the Aegis, the shield with the head of Jellyfish. More powerful goddess became, taught to it to the men practically all activities, as hunting, fishes, arc-and-arrow use, to sew and to dance. It got some victories on Airs, the god of the war and its great rival, and won Poseidon in the competition for the ownership of the city of Atenas that gained its name. It was the goddess of the work, as well as of the domestic arts and especially of the art to weave.

A mortal, a young called Lydian Aracne, had developed a great capacity to weave, to weave and to embroider. Any person who the way thought that the goddess had taught this art to it. But Aracne denied this, therefore the proper goddess was considered better that. It arrived until defying it for a competition, saying that it would pay the penalty if was won.

When hearing this, and the goddess was grumbler and taking the one aspect anciã, it visited Aracne and informed it that it was better to defy other women and to ask for to pardon the goddess for its impudence. As Aracne one was not satisfied, they had started the competition. It weaveeed the scene of its competition with Poseidon, in the presence of twelve deuses of the Olimpo. Poseidon finished to create the horse and Atena the Oliveira. In the four cantos of its part it had scenes showing what it happens with mortals who had defied deuses in the past. But the challenger did not give up the duel and weaveeed scenes showing the errors and the imperfections of deuses. Its work was fact well, but, while it advanced, they appeared each time more insults against deuses. Irritated, the goddess beat the fabric with its shuttle and cut it in pieces.

It touched Aracne in the forehead making to understand it the extension of the offence that had committed, that of so ashamed it finished if hanging. The goddess said to it that it could continue living, but so that it learned the lesson, its descendants would have to continue hung. Thus, he was transformed into spider, always weaving the line for which it would remain suspended e, thus, until today the name that the spider in Greek assigns he is aracne. Also grafada as Atená Visors, frequently he is associated with a shield of war, the owl of the wisdom or the Oliveira. According to Homero, he played an important role supporting the Greeks in the War of Troy and had participation in the judgment of Paris. Also he had important participation in the judgment of Areópago, when he judged Orestes together with the people of Atenas he acquitted and giving it the sattle of matter vote, the famous vote of Press, its Roman name.
Australia has the biggest theater of the world

Although the building of the National Congress of Pequim to also have rooms for 10 a thousand people and to be used for teatrais representations, the biggest theater of the world is the Perth Entertainment Center, constructed special for this purpose, in the city of Perth, Australia. It can accomodate 8,500 people. Main its palco measures 21,3 meters of width. It is in it that, annually, an art festival is become fullfilled, with duration of five weeks, that attracts great talentos of the dramaturgia, music, ballet and cinema.

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The different languages of Belgium
Belgium already was an immense country inhabited for tribes celtas and the Germanics. Its territory occupied since the Sea of the North until the Marne and the Sena, in France. In century IV, however, the Romans had divided the region in provinces, exploring and colonizing the South part. It was this ethnic division that gave origin to the two peoples who form the country, of a side (South) the Walloons, descendants of the Romans and falantes of the Frenchman, and another one, the flamengos, relatives of the first inhabitants of the region. In the attempt to increase the agreement the so heterogênia population of the country enters, was promulgated in August of 1963 a law that established four linguistic regions: Flandres, to the north, of language flamenga; the region of French language, or Walloon, to the south; the east the German language; e the bilingual area of Brussels (flamengo and Frenchman).
Brazil has greaters mineral deposits of the planet

The disadvantage of Brazil in the siderurgical production, although to possess the biggest mineral deposits of the planet, must it the lack of ecnológica researcht. Siderurgy was initiated early in the country, for 1590 return, when Alfonso Sardine started to explore the mines of Aroçoiaba, in São Paulo. In the Rio Grande Do Sul, the pioneirismo fit to the priest Antonio Sepp, in century 17, with activity in the mines of Camaquã. Although this precocidade, the lack of technological research reduced Brazil to the mere condition of raw material supplier. Today, the siderurgical industry is strengthenn for recouping the lost time.

Wall of China has 7,200 km

The Wall of China, one of the biggest workmanships of engineering of all the times, was constructed as prohibited against the invasions of the mongóis and manchus, in year 250 before Christ. Recently one uncovered that the wall is still more extensive of what it was imagined, having seven a thousand and two hundred kilometers of length. The number of laborers is evaluated in ten million who had worked in its construction during 20 years.

Wonders of the old world are eight

The wonders of the old world were eight, not seven, as generally it is said: 1. Statue of Amenófis III, in Tebas; 2. Pyramids of Egypt; 3. Lighthouse of Alexandria; 4. Suspended gardens of Babilônia; 5. Temple of Diana, in Efeso; 6. Jupiter statue, in Rome; 7. Tomb of king Mausolo, in Caria; 8. Colossus of Rhodes.

The history of skate

The history of skate still starts in years 30, when children had started to mount its proper “stands” with wheels of skids placed under pieces of metal or wood. The surfistas of California had also adopted the object at the beginning of years 50, using it as a method of trainings when the sea did not offer good waves or in cities without beach. The sport was initially called sidewalk surfing (surf of sidewalk) or land surfing. Skateboard, however, delayed very to turn fever. It was only in 1973 that rodinhas of urethane had been created by the American Frank Naswortly, what improved its traction very and made possible more radical maneuvers.

The origin of the hall soccer

Two versions count the origin of the hall soccer. One of them says that the game was created by return of 1940 in the Christian Association ofYoung men in São Paulo. The sport was transferred squares to them covered of basquete and hockey due to difficulty to find free fields for the practical one. Initially, the teams were composed for six or seven players and the balls were of serragem, vegetal horsehair, or of granulated cork oak. However, since they quicavam very, they had had its reduced size and the increased weight, reason for which called the game “sport of the heavy ball”. To another possible origin he retraces the 1943, in the Christian Association of Young men of Montevidéu, in Uruguay, where the sport was called indoor-foot-ball.

The pigeons athlete

Races of pigeons are carried through in some parts of the world, as in Great-Britain, Holland, France, Canada and U.S.A. They foram created in Belgium, where the telegraphs had started to substitute the pigeons post office and many animals had at the time been “dismissed”. The race the same starts in starting point for all the competitors, but it locks up in different places for each one of them. This occurs because the pigeons are taught to come back toward house. To know who it earned, one measures the time in the distance that leads to return to the home, dividing covered for the time expense, thus gets the developed average speed. Amongst all the animal athletes (as horses, cachorros greyhound and camels), the pigeon are fastest, being able to arrive at the speed of 177km/h.

Tennis of table or ping-pong?

The first registers of the table tennis date of the second half of century XIX, in England, period where he wasknown for different names. No longer final of the century, James Gibb, an English maratonista pensioner, introduced to the game just-acquired celluloid balls in U.S.A. When hearing the small balls beating in raquetes hollow of lambskin, Gibb associated the sound to the word “ping-pong”, that its more popular nickname became until the present. However in 1921-22, in the attempt to establish an association of ping-pong that it registered the official rules of the sport in the Country of Wales, its organizadores had been legally hindered, therefore “ping-pong” already was a registered mark. Thus, the nomenclature “table tennis” came back to be adopted. Few years later, the English rules had been accepted internationally, walking to the unification of the sport. The table tennis was raised the condition of olímpico sport in 1988.

Why they call the Search ball of gandulas
Gandulla was the name of an Argentine who was part of the team of the Vasco of Gamma in the decade of 40. It was so bad that he never obtained to enter in the games. He was uniformizado in the side of the field and he always ran pra to catch the ball that left in the lateral or the line deep. The twisted one passed if to make familiar to the “Gandulla” and, from now on, all that fulfill the craft of “repositor of balls” had passed to be known as gandulas.

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The Caveira de Cristal

In 1927, British archaeologist F.A. Michell-Hedges discovered a fascinating part of the Mayan artesanato.

Human being cut in a block of quartz crystal is about a perfect rejoinder of a head.

The way as the Mayans had made this object is considered a mystery.

For this, they had needed some generations of craftsmen with 300 years of devotion to crystal burnishing.

The part superios of the mouth acts as a prism. When the caveira is illuminated underneath, this prism projects the light for top making with that this skirt for the eyes, giving a well vivacious aspect to the sculpture.

The complexity of the drawing, as well as the one of the work in general, gave force to the speculation of that the sculpture would have been made with extraterrestrial technology.

The Legend of the Drácula

where Vlad Tsepesh Aka Dracula
Vlad Dracula (Dracúla is pronounced) or Vlad, the Empalador, wasa prince who really existed, in which Bram Stocker based the celebrity Conde Drácula. Dracula was born in the Transilvânia in 1431, in the city of Sighisoara, or Schassburg. Its father, Vlad Dracul (Vlad, the Demon), was member one of the Order of the Dragon, what he meant a pact of perpetual fight against the Turks. The Dracul name meant Dragon or Demon, and if it became symbol of its father because it used the symbol of the dragon in its currencies. With the age of only 13 years, Dracula was captured by the Turks, had taught who it to torture and to empalar people. But it was under its reign of in Wallachia, of 1456 the 1462, that it really had the possibility to use its knowledge. It was at this time that appeared the majority of histories. For example: one day Dracula saw a man with the dirty shirt and maltrapilha. It asked if the man had a wife, and the man answered that yes, Dracula perceived that it was a healthful and full woman of fiber, she called and it sluggish. As punishment, it had the cut off hands and its empalado body. It looked a new wife for the man and showed it what he happens with its sluggish predecessor as an acknowledgment form. The new woman, definitively, was not sluggish.

The other name of Dracula, Tsepesh (or Tepes), meant empalador. Vlad was called thus due to its propensity for the empalamento, as a form of punishment for its enemies. Empalamento was a particularly direful method of execution. The victim was ece of fish in a horse pushed in direction the props polishing and dipped in grease the oil, of form not to cause the immediate death.

Wives infidels and promiscuous women had been punished by Dracula, having its cut sexual agencies, the skin pulled out while alive and I publish displayed it, with its skins hung next to its bodies. Dracula appreciated execution in mass especially, where some victims were empaladas of a time, and the hoisted props. As the victims if kept suspended of the soil, the weight of its bodies made with that they went down vagarosamente for the prop, that, had the smooth base, went burglarizing the internal agencies.

Better to appreciate the spectacle, Dracula routinely carried through slap-up meal in front of its victims, and was a pleasure it to feed itself enters the lamentable signals and noises of its victims dying. The current castle of Dracula is to the north of the Wallachia, in the city of Tirgosvite. Vlad Tsepesh aka Dracula died in 1476. Some histories count that it died in a disfarçado battle of Turk. As the victory was next, it ran for the high one of a cliff to appreciate everything, but it was confusing with a Turk and died by its proper men.

The tomb of Dracula is open in 1931, but she was empty for one not to be spoiled skeleton, a gold crown, one gargantilha with the idea of a serpent and fragmentos of suit of red silk, with a sewn bell. Unhappyly its mortal remains had been stolen of the History Museum of Bucharest (Historical Museum of Bucharest), where they had been deposited

The Disappeared Island of Atlantis

The debate on the existence of the Atlantis is well old. Since the times of the Greek philosopher Platão, the Atlantis with its splendid civilization, it arrives at the actuais days as an enigma that originatedthe book publication innumerable.

Teses of carácter geologic, archaeological and others has served to sharpen the human spirit in the search of the existence of the enigmatic continent. I will go to deal with here these teses, that will be able to give to carácter scientific to our searches.

Of all the lost legends on peoples and civilizations, the history of Atlantis seems to be that one that more interest has despertado.

The first written reference of this myth meets in the stories of Platão. In the dialogues Timeu and Crítias the fascinating history of the located civilization is told “stops beyond the columns of Hércules”. The existence of this continental island is described, as well as the historical details of its people, with its social organization, religious politics and, beyond its geography and also of its fatídica destruction.

The Discovery Radio

In this time of mercantilism, valley the example of Pierre and Marie Curie, whom in 1898 the Radio of the Pechblenda/uranita discovered.

Pierre and Marie could have required the patent to produce the new metal and if to become millionaire.

However it refused using arguing that it would be against the scientific spirit.

Not even when it received Nobel de Física, in 1903, a more comfortable life was allowed. It divided the prize with friends.

More on the Radio (Frog)
The Radio (of Latin “radius”, ray) is a chemical element of symbol Frog, atomic number 88 (88 prótons and 88 electrons) with 226 atomic mass [] u, pertaining the family of metals alkaline-terroso, group 2 of the periodic classification of the elements. To the ambient temperature, the radio meets in the solid state.

It is a radioactive metal highly found in minerals of Uranian as in pechblenda. Its applications are derived from its radioactive character. He was used in medicine, however substituted for more efficient radioisótopos.

Pechblenda is a variety, probably impure, of uraninita. Of it the Uranian one is removed, that it is constituent of many rocks. It is extracted of the ore, purificado and concentrated under the form of a salt of yellow color, known as “yellowcake”. Signfiica Yellowcake, literally, “yellow cake”. It must its name to the intense yellow, characteristic coloration of secondary composites of Uranian, as it can be seen in the figure that illustrates this page.

The ore of Uranian is removed of the mine and, after extration processes, are sent for plant of improvement for attainment of the Uranian concentrate of, whose chemical composition is the diuranato of ammonia, known as yellowcake or concentrated of U3O8.

Brazil is owner of the fifth bigger reserve of Uranian of the world, of approximately 300 a thousand tons.

It was in a sample of pechblenda that Marie Curie discovered the radio.

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The Discovery of Penicillin

The curd of embolorada soy seems to have been the first natural antibiotic, used for the Chinese for return of 500 B.C. to treat similar furúnculos and other infections.

Almost so old, and gift in some civilizations, is the embolorado bread use and teias of spider in infectados wounds.

Although the doctors have looked in the 2 a thousand following years a medicine species that fought the infection for bacteria, no researcher thought about scientifically investigating the medicinal folklore in relation to the bolores.

The first modern antibiotic, penicillin, was an accidental discovery of the Scottish bacteriologist Alexander Fleming, in 1928. Fleming had been a medical officer in the military hospitals of England during the World War I.

Noticing the serious necessity of an bactericidal agent to deal with the infectados wounds, after the war returned to the St. Mary's Hospital, in London, to search on the problem.

In 1928, while it studied the Staphylococcus aureus, a responsible bacterium for the abscesses and several other infections, Fleming entered of vacation per some days, leaving its glass containers with culture without supervision.

When returning, it noticed that the cover of one of the containers had slid and that the culture had been contaminated with the mildew of the atmosphere. Fleming was almost to lie down the culture outside when it made it to the curiosity to examine it. In the area where the bolor was to grow, the cells of the Staphylococcus had died.

It immediately perceived the meaning of this discovery and verified that the bolor, a species of fungo Penicillium, was to segregate a substance that destruía the bacteria.

Although it has not obtained to isolate the substance - what he was made ten years later for Ernst B. Chain and Howard W. Florey, in England -, it called it penicillin. Many scientists were skeptical how much to the potential of the bolor that had appeared by chance in the blade of Fleming.

They did not reveal made use to try in its patients a common bolor.

Other problems had resulted of the fragility of the bolor: it was weak, impure and easily destrutível for the climatic and acídicas changes.

Great amounts were necessary to get a enough penicillin concentration for an only patient, and Fleming did not have enough mounts of money.

With World War II it had a necessity of anti-septic fighting the infections of the wounded troops.

The Dr. Howard Walter Florey, professor of pathology in Oxford, had heard to speak on the bolor of Fleming and took the research ahead.

With one he equips of 20 scientists and technician, Florey cultivated the bolor of Fleming again.

During months he equips, it kept enormous large barrels of a embolorado and malcheiroso broth, trying to extract the main ingredient.

The Dr. Ernst Boris Chain obtained to extract of the solution a brown dust, that destroyed some bacteria instantaneously; in the truth, the extract contained only about 5% of penicillin in its pure chemical form.

The scientists had tested the substance in 80 different microbes; they had discovered that the fluids of the blood were not hostile to the substance and that the white globules were not damaged nor if they became inactive.

They had prepared a penicillin salt (I contend you leave sodium and calcium), that it was more steady of what the bolor, and well-had been occurred in the cure of rats that had received injections from aureus fatal doses of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and other bacteria.

Its discoveries had formed the base for the treatment with penicillin that if practises until our days.

In 1940, penicillin was used, in England, in the first human patient, a policy with an advanced picture of sanguineous infection.

During five days the doctors had managed the drug to each two or three hours (penicillin leaves the body for piss quickly and, therefore, it must be restituted in frequent and regular intervals). The policy had recouped significantly when the penicillin suppliment if depleted and the injections had been suspended.

The infection spread and finished for winning it. The British scientists not yet had obtained to produce penicillin in amount enough to save a life.

In as in case that, however, a young, that also suffered with a sanguineous infection, received penicillin enough to recover.

The History of the Rope

Rope is utensil manufactured for the man since the Age of the Rock.

The rope is one of the utensils oldest manufactured by the man.

In remaining portions of the Age of the Rock, done strengthened staple fibre ropes had been found twisted and with a resinous material.

The Egyptians manufactured already them of cotton, about three a thousand years before the Christian Age.

Without ropes, they could not have constructed the pyramids.

The history of the recorder of cassettes

White Thomas Edison (1847-1931) sketched in 1877 a machine with a cylinder re-covered of tins, moved the winch and with a nipple, in which if he spoke making to vibrate a needle. The needle tins arranhava it and later, passed for the same ridges, it reproduced the sound. Proper Edison inaugurated its phonograph or “machine of speaking” reciting verses of the infantile song Mary had little lamb.

Many other attempts to arrive itself at a recorder had been made. Nothing very practical up to 1935, year where German company I.G. Farben produced a coil ribbon magnetic. Little time later, also the German AEG Telefunken created the “Magnetofone”, that it could record and reproduce the sound. During World War II, the senders of radio of Germany had used the new machine to record the speeches of Adolf Hitler and later placing them in air.

The recorder of cassettes was a creation of Philips, in Holland, 1963. The company liberated the patent to all the interested parties to encourage its adoption in the whole world.

The History of the Mouse de Computador

Mouse of computer was created by Douglas Engelbart, in 1968, result of a project that lasted five years.

Engelbart, born in 30 of January of 1925, in the Oregon, U.S.A., worked in the Institute of Research of Stanford, where it developed “ratinho of table”.

Its first version was done wooden, was moved on small wheels and had only one button.

The popularização of the equipment, so indispensable today, started sufficiently late, when in 1982 the Appel launched the system “to point and to clicar”, exactly year where it earned plus a keyboard key.

Origin of the Elevator

The beginning of a suspended platform inside of a vertical cabin for the transport of people or materials heavy he was described for the first time for Roman architect Vitruvius, in century I B.C.

The rise was gotten using a counterbalance, that went up and went down under the control of a sheave moved for a winch of the side of is of the platform.

It is probable that these elevators have been used in the houses Romans with some floors, where would have been operated for slaves.

The first known elevator was what the king Luis XV ordered to install, in 1743, in the Palace of Versailles.

It bound its aposentos to the one of loving its, madame of Châteauroux, in the floor of low.

The name of the English is not known who, about 1800, thought about using an engine the vapor to move the elevators.

This motor one was installed in the ceiling and controlled rolling and to uncurl around of the handle of a cylinder.

In 1851, the American Elisha Serious Otis (1811-61) invented a security system that he hindered that the handle balanced, arresting it in a track and blocking it with a series of claws.

This also allowed the use of the equipment for people. To show the efficiency of its invention, in 1854, it ordered to cut the handle of an elevator that he himself piloted. The first elevator of passengers was inaugurated by it in 23 of March of 1857 in a store of five floors in New York.

In 1867, the Frenchman Léon François Edoux invented the elevator of hydraulical column.

The same Edoux constructed, in 1889, an elevator of 160 meters of height for the Eiffel Tower.

These elevators were 20 faster times of what its predecessors, who worked with traction.

In 1880, the German company Siemens & Halske used electric energy in the traction of the elevators.

It went up 22 meters in 11 seconds.

The electricity use allowed the introduction of interruptors to control the elevator in 1894.

When and as the condom appeared

During centuries, men and women have looked contraceptive methods, several had been tested, but the majority if only showed painful and inefficacious. In the attempt to preventa indesejada pregnancy or sexually transmissible illnesses the humanity invented so strange formulas how much ginger and juice of the tobacco or excrementos of crocodile, that possesss pH alkaline, as well as the modern espermicidas.

The birth of the condom was not much more noble of what this. In Asia a wrap of paper of silk was used dipped in grease with oil. In Old Egypt the Egyptians already used ancestral of condoms not as contraceptive, but as protection against pricked of insects (during the hunted ones, not in the sex). They were made of fabric or other little efficient porous materials as contraceptive methods.

But, during the Average Age, with the dissemination of venereal diseases in the Europe if she made necessary the invention of a more efficient method. In 1564, the anatomist and surgeon Gabrielle Fallopio confectioned a hemp lining of the size of the absorbed penis and in grass. More ahead, these condoms had passed to be absorbed in chemical solutions (supposedly espermicidas) and later dried.

It was alone in century XVII, that the condom gained a “touch of classroom”. The Dr. Quondam, alarmed with the number of illegitimate children of the king Carlos II of England (1630-1685), created a protector made with gut of animals. The adjustment of the open extremity was done with a bow, what, obviously, he was not very cômodo, but the device made as much success that it has who says that the name in English (condom) would be a homage to the doctor. Other registers indicate that the name seems to come same of Latin “condus” (stowage).

The “condom-gut” followed being used, up to 1839, when Charles Goodyear discovered the process of vulcanization of the rubber, making it flexible the ambient temperature. But if it does not liven up that the absolute hygiene not yet was born. At this time, the rubber condoms were thick and expensive and for this washed and reused diverse times.

The latex condoms alone had appeared in 1880 and from there they had evolved to the measure that new materials had been developed, adding to new forms, improving the trustworthiness and durability.

Who invented the antenna

He was Italian Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937) in 1906.

It is a device that serves for the captation or irradiation of radio waves.

It is formed by a set of wires in contact with the ground and suspended the certain height, placed in towers, automobiles or in the high one of the buildings.

The antenna receives and transmits waves electromagnetic. These waves are called hertzian waves and spread in the space without conducting wire necessity.

Thanks to them, the antennas can catch the transmissions of radio, television, telegraph, etc…

The first station of radio used, as antenna, a strained wire.

Later, the devices had been developed until arriving at the complex current devices.

The invention of the antenna helped Marconi in its research until leading to the invention of the telegraph without wires.

First satellite

After 2ª World-wide War, in a scientific conference in England in 1953, had been presented plain of a satellite for Dr. S. Fred Singer.

In the 1954 summer the Dr. Wernher von Braun presented a plan for the launching of a satellite.

However the first satellite launched to the space and to be in orbit around the Land was Sputnik I (Russian satellite) launched in 4 of October of 1957.

Thermal bottle

The thermal bottle was created in century 19, for the English James Dewar.

It did not intend to keep the coffee quentinho, but to only conserve solutions in the laboratory.

Dewar never patented the invention, but a glass manufacturer, the German Reinhold Burger diminished the size of the bottle and enriched, when launching it for domestic use, in 1903.

vestibular contest

To kill, to torture, to beat. These are some of the actions that the vestibulandos if prontificaram to make with the minister of the Justiçand Interior Businesses, of 1910 the 1913, Rivadávia of the Corrêa Wedge.
E what this Sir made to deserve so great violence? He swims. Only it was who all instituted the initial use of competition in the country for the ingression in superior education.
The decision was taken in 1911, ahead of the increasing demand and practically the steady number of vacant in superior education.
Until then who only attended a course the third degree had studied in college D. Peter 2º, of Rio De Janeiro, or in colleges certifyd by federal overseers as of the same level.
In the principle, the examinations were written and verbal on languages and sciences. Each school made its proper test. It did not have an examination unified for institution.

More significant changes had been to only happen in the decade of 70. Before this, in accordance with the vice-director of the Fuvest (University Foundation for the Vestibular contest), Jose Atílio Vanin, the examinations charged compatible knowledge only with the first year of the college.
“The test approached questions of mathematics, physics, chemistry, writing and a foreign language. The extension of knowledge was lesser, but he was more gone deep than today”, it compares.
Vanin affirms that, in reason of this, it was almost impossible to be approved in the vestibular contest when leaving average education, what the creation of the cursinhos proliferated.
In years 60 the first unified vestibular contests had appeared, as the Cecem, that congregated of later biological facultieses of medicine and health, and the Cecea, with schools of administration, right and human beings in general.
Another difficulty (so that nobody says that today it is very worse, even though estressante) it was that the federal institutions carried through the examinations in the same date, what hindered the interstate migrations.
With the creation of the National Commission of the Unified Vestibular contest, in the decade of 70, prescribed the election, this finished.
The content of the examinations had of if to restrict you discipline to them of average education, what, theoretically, it would finish with the necessity cursinhos them. Resolution that, today is known, did not function.
The Fuvest alone was to appear in 1976, selecting in the same examination candidates to the USP (University of São Paulo), to the Unesp (São Paulo State University) and to the Unicamp (State University of Campinas). The first divorce was of the Unesp, in 83. The Unicamp left in 85.

But why?
The vestibulandos of today, that they face maratonas of tests and a competition that to the times surpasses the one hundred candidates for vacant, until understand the necessity of some type of process, but they are not satisfied with the vestibular contest.
“All good, was necessary to make some thing, but it could be a ameno process”, complains Charlene Bertão Coast, 18, that it goes to give medicine.
“If I found this face (the minister), killed, would make of it the target of all my anger”, I play. Calmer, it he questions: “I only wanted to know why it decided to make this”.
Less rebelled, the candidate the administration I fall Napoli Galvão, 17, it says that it does not find the system bad, but makes critical. “With the vestibular contest you finish deciding its future in two or three days.”
Also the candidate to a vacant in medicine Alice Bei, 17, informs that Corrêa was known, would make it to prove of the proper poison. “It Would invite stops giving to a well difficult vestibular contest it to see if it is good.”
In 1996, the new LDB (Law of Lines of direction and Bases) established that the institutions of superior education are free to decide the election process that want to use. Exactly thus, to the 88 years, the vestibular contest continues firm and strong.

Translator Tooth-Human being

eita Sato, President of the Takara Co., Dr. Matsumi Suzuki, President of the Japan Acoustic Lab, and Dr. Norio Kogure, Executive Director of the Kogure Veterinary Hospital, had invented the “Bow-Lingual” (he expresses yourself literally as Linguístico Arc), an automatic device of computerized translation of “tooth” for human being.

The Bow-Lingual possesss two parts: a microphone without wire that is in the coleira of its dog and a species of walkie-talkie of hand with a screen LCD.

The barks and other sounds of the animal are transmitted to the hand device where its impression of voice is analyzed and placed in one of the six emotional categories: happy, sad, of promptitude, frustrated, devoid or assertive. A time that the emotional state is defined, the Bow-Lingual randomly selects a pertaining phrase to that category and shows in the screen.


The Italian genius Leonardo of the Vinci drew, in 1480, a machine that raised flight horizontally.

It inspired to the connoisseur in aeronautics Igor Sikorski, an American of Russian origin, that started to study the subject in 1908.

He has controversies on the first flights of helicopter. It would have been carried through for the Frenchman Étienne Oehmichen, who flied 1 kilometer in 1924.

Others recognize the Italian Of Ascanio as the pioneer, in 1930.

In any way, the models still presented problems.

Until the first airplane of Igor, Sikorsky VS-300 (1939), would come to be the definitive project of all the future helicopters.

Its idea was the first helicopter of rotor only e was received readily by the manufacturers.

The vehicle could be controlled, pairava when going up and to go down vertically, beyond flying stops backwards and for the sides.

Sikorsky filed the plans of production in mass during World War II to work in other aeronautical projects.

But in 1945, it immediately dived in the work to perfect its previous project and to conceive military and domestic ships, whose intentions incluíam operations of aid and rescue beyond missions of combat in low altitudes.

Two ancestral ones of the helicopter had been: the gyroplane, created for the Frenchman Louis Breguet, in 1907, and the autogyro, a species of armed aeroplano, in the superior part, of a helix that allowed it to go up and to lower vertically, idealized for the woollen Spaniard Juan Cierva, in the year of 1922.

Engine air: the revolution

A moved car air? E functions? To these questions, placed with an incredulity tone, French engineer Guy Nègre, always answers with full “yes, functions” E to corroborate suthe affirmation, it enters in its small MDI “MiniCat” moved compressed air and to circulate starts it.

Without a doubt none, the car the compressed air invented by French engineer Guy Nègre, will be one of the biggest technician-scientific advances of Century 21. Guy Nègre, invented an engine with the capacity to put into motion an car to a speed of up to 110/130 km/h, with a cost R$ 6,00 (six 250/300 Reals) to each km run, and, in addition, having the advantage of not only poluir the atmosphere as, also, of purificar air.

Group MDI - Moteur Developpement International that developed this clean vehicle was, recently, presented in London, Paris and São Paulo. With more than 50 licenses of manufacture spread by the world, the MDI soon soon will be circulating in the streets of France, Israel, Spain, Portugal, Italy, New Zelândia, South Africa, Mexico, Colombia, Peru and Panama.

Group MDI - Moteur Developpement International more than has its matrix headquartered in Luxemburg, being proprietors of 30 patents in 120 countries. The plant of archetypes MDI is located in the Mediterranean city of Nice, in the South of France; there more than 60 technician work in the development of this new industry, being already concluded the first plant of production in series.

“We are not only manufacturing only one special car, senão all a system to transform energy in an ecologically correct way. The development of new applications of engine MDI will have many possibilities in the industry of today and in the one of the future, also in the development of the techniques for the energy storage”, Guy Nègre said.

At the moment, car MDI is in certification phase to twirl in the roads of the Europe. At the same time, with its recent official presentation in Barcelona, the commercial expansion is in full development and opened all the world-wide market. The cession of the rights for countries for its production is the only source of financing of the company. The last contract signed in Spain for ten million Euros “allows to give a new and important step in the conquest of the market for this vehicle not-pollutant”, affirmed the inventor.

Approximately a thousand specialists of everybody already had tested the archetypes in Center MDI; many of investing them, managing financiers, technician and journalists specialized in automobile industry. The first question that if makes when if is ahead of such technological innovation is: “it functions exactly” All the specialists who already had visited Center MDI in France had confirmed that the results are absolutely surprising. The archetypes function!