* The diamond is the mineral hardest of the planet. No mineralor substance that has inferior hardness of the diamond (in Escala Mohs, that quantifies the hardness of metals, it has level 10, that it is the principle) obtains to scratch out it. On the other hand, it is very fragile and if it breaks easily.

* The diamonds are perpetual same? Not. They are pure carbon composites and the carbon meagers with the time.

* The value of a diamond is measured by its color, pureness, stonecutting and weight.

* The brilliant is a diamond stoned with rounded off forms.

* Of the rocks found in world 80% they come of Angola, Australia, Botsuana, Namíbia, South Africa, Russia and the Congo.

* They are necessary about 250 tons of gravel extracting one carat of diamond.

* In 1988 nine diamonds form vendidos in New York in the store Sotheby's and Christie's. Most expensive 185,2 a thousand dollars and 926,315 a thousand dollars for carat had been bought at auction by!

* A rude rock of 2 carats produces a diamond stoned of 1 carat.

* Indian emperor Shanh Johan, that he ordered to construct the Taj Mahal, used a diamond of 88 carats in its ceremony of crown, in 1628.

* The biggest diamond of century XXI, the egg yolk Promise of the Lesoto, has 603 carats of weight, the equivalent the 120 gram (the same that a golf ball). It has this name because he was found in the Lesoto, an African country. He was vendido by 12,4 million dollar in October of 2007.
The royalty

# the corridor most long of the world is constructed in the Great Gallery of the Museum of the Louvre, in Paris. It was constructedin 1607 by the king Enrique IV. In days of rain, the king was walking that way. Until he practised hunting to the fox in the corridor.

# the French king Luis XIV had 413 beds. In its cut, the prestige of the people was measured for the weight of the chair where he was allowed them to seat: how much bigger the weight, greater prestige. But the king and the queen could use chairs with arms.

# a small elevator was installed in the palace of Versailles, France, 1743. It bound to the room of the king Luis XV to the aposentos of loving its, madame of Châteauroux, in the floor of low.

# In one normal supper, the king Luis XIV ate 4 plates of soup, two entire pheasants, 2 pieces of ham, 1 salada, meat of kid with garlic, fruits, candies and 1 egg cooked. Later that it died, uncovered that its stomach was 2 times bigger that a normal stomach.

# the queen Victory, of England, did not allow that the real train travelled the 45 more than km/h. A time, it perceived that the train walked to a superior speed to this and ordered to beat and to fire the machinist.

# Peter, the Great one, emperor of Russia between 1682 and 1725, was really great: it had 2,13 meters. Already the frightful Átila, king of the Hunos, measured 1,06 meter.

# Akbar, an Indian emperor of century XVI, used an entire garden as chessboard. The parts were dancers of its palace. The players were seated in the high one of a tower and commanded the movements to the alive parts.

# In 1819, in the reign of Luis XIII, the population of 700 a thousand inhabitants, took 600 a thousand banns, average of less than 1 annual bath for inhabitant.

# Luis XIII took its first bath to the 7 years of age, because at the time it had the fear of that the water amolecesse the organism and hindered the growth.

# the bathtub that Luis XIV ordered to install in the Palace of Versailles, for absolutely use lack, was converted into garden source.
Nose and ears never stop to grow
The fabric cartilaginoso, that forms the nose and the ears, does not leave to grow not even when the individual becomes adult. From there because the nose and the ears of an aged one are bigger of what when was young. The face also shrinks because the muscles of the chew if atrophy with the loss of teeth.
India is bigger producer of cinema

The cinematographic industry of India is the greater of the world. It produces about700 films per year, uses 2 million people and it attracts 70 million spectators per week. Sixty percent of the collection reverts in taxes for the Indian government. The enormous amount of produced films is reflected in the quality.

First romance of the world was written by a woman

A woman was the author of the first literary romance of all the times. Murasaki Shibiku, a Japanese of the noble classroom, wrote in the year a 1007 book called “history Genji”, counting to the history of a prince in search love and wisdom. The person who also wrote the biggest number of romances in history is a woman. Barabara Cartland is author you are welcome less than 723 romances, that more than venderam a billion of copies in 36 languages, making of it also the author of romances more vendida of the world.

The origin of the Magical cube

The Magical Cube, small object formed for nine squares colored in cada face, was created by the Hungarian Ernö Rubik, in the half of the decade of 70. However, it was only in 1980 that the toy, called originally Cube of Rubik, became famous in the remaining portion of the world, when was mattered by the United States. The challenge considered for the game is to place all the squares of equal color in the same face of the cube turning its parts. Objective, that still more is complicated of what it seems, can generate much frustration in less adept. Perceiving this, a company arrived to commercialize, in years 80, a package with colorful adhesives imitating the parts of the toy. Thus, any one could glue them conveniently in the object and dissimulate that it had looser.
Invention and aspiration of Gillette

The first blade to shave was created in 1895 for the American King C.Gillette (1855-1932), a trader who wanted to invent a product of wide use between the people, but that also she could be used, played outside and bought again. The idea appeared at the most likely moment: while it was shaved. It remembered the bother to have to use a razor, that lost the wire and needed constant repair, and then conceived a device that used fine dismissable blades. Its idea alone arrived at the market six years later, vendendo 90 a thousand blades in first the three years. Gillette also was involved directly with the socialist movement in U.S.A. The inventor, then called utopian, foresaw in the book The Human Drift (1894) the transformation of entire cities in an only complex (Metrópolis), fed for hidroelétrica energy, not-pollutant and capable to produce and to distribute everything that the population needs.

T-shirt, clothes of war

The use of a part of light and comfortable clothes to facethe hot and humid days of summer was idea of the European soldiers during the World War I. The American combatants, died of envy for the heat who passed with heavy the uniforms of cotton, had taken the finding for U.S.A., where the clothes turned fashion and were incorporated by the navy and army in 1942. The part without sleeves, that was called T-shirt (shirt-t, given name had its format), was done of cotton and had the rounded off gullet. Its popularização was definitive in years 50, thanks to the cinema and television. Actors as John Wayne and Marlon Brando had shocked America when appearing having used nothing on the t-shirt in national chain. But who was James Dean became it symbol of youth and revolt in Rebel Causes It to Without (Rebellious without Cause - 1955).

The glue was created by the prehistoric men

The invention of the glue dates of the prehistoric age, when it was created accidentally. The artists of the past had mixed eggs, dry blood and fruit juices looking for to develop different inks to paint the caves. Later, the Egyptians had learned to make stronger glues with bones of animals. Nowadays, the liquid celebrity is made of synthetic substances.

Yokes alone had arrived in the Europe in century XI

Although to be very old objects, the yokes alone had arrived in the worldoccidental person during century XI, in Italy. Before them, the meals were made with spoons of wood, knives, or with the proper hands. Created for the Greeks, and adopted in century VII in the Bizantino Empire, the places setting brought to the Europe had delayed to make success. At the beginning, they were used only for the Italian nobility, being that, only in century XVI they had been popularized. The remain of the Europe more still delayed to use the yokes, that were seen as unnecessary objects, of affected use. In England, until the beginning of century XVII, effeminate utensils were cosiderados.

Dividing the day

The sun clock, the oldest used object for the man to measure the time, functions observing it change of position and length ofthe projected shades for the Sun in the different periods of the day. Located in Egypt, the first clocks, that date approximately of 3500 B.C., were composites only for a pillar, called gnomon, and could show the two halves of the day (the noon was the moment of the lesser shade). Later, scales of measures had been added in return of the column so that the days could be divided in shorter periods. The first evidence of division of the time in equal parts date of 1500 B.C.

Light, camera, action

Claquetes, those used instruments in the hour to say “light, camera, action” in the TV productions or cinema, is used to assist in the sincronia of the audio one with the video in the hour to edit a film, since the image is captured by a filmadora, but the sound is recorded in ribbon. Claquete is taken for front of the camera, having written down in it the numbers of the scene and taking of the production. These information are chores in high voice folloied of one batidinha enter the two parts of the instrument (the celebrity “clap”). In the hour to edit the film, the sincronia is conquered easily, locating “clap” of the ribbon of video with its recorded sound in the ribbon.

Why sabonete clean?

The soap (or sabonete) is made with some soluble ingredients in water and othersin oil. The soluble part in oil acts first, unfastening the dirt of the skin (that she is oily), thus the debris is untied, ready so that to another part of the soap it suspends them, so that the water carregue them even so. The foam that if form is resulted of the action of the water, air and of the body, and appears through the friction. To little foam of some sabonetes can be caused by the high mineral level in the water or by being kept in place where they are not wet frequently, amongst other reasons.

The origin of frisbees

To hurl pratinhos of plastic can seem an attempt of if playingfrisbee without the appropriate equipment, however he was thus same that the trick was born, with truth plates. In 1940 middle, the students of the University of Yale had created the game hurling the plates for pies, made of tin, of a next bakery to the campus. The establishment belonged the William Russel Frisbee, reason of the name of the record. The fashion caught and the first done plastic toys had been launched in 1957 for the Wham it Company. The name frisbee, adopted initially for the students, was registered in 1959.

You calculate why them are called murderous whales?

Although calls of “assassins”, do not have register some ofattack of you calculate the human beings in its half natural one. Me the fame of this mammal of five tons must, in the truth, to one misunderstanding. When the divers and whalers had discovered you calculate that them, that they live and they eat in groups of up to 50 individuals, attack whales of different species had called, them “assassins of whales”, nickname that finished turning “murderous whale”. He calculates it, that in the truth it is a species of dolphin - both belong to the same family - can measure up to 9,5 meters. Its coloration black in back helps to camouflage it with deep of sea, whereas belly confuses the white it with the light of the sun, that comes of the surface, for sees who it of low.

Which speed reaches a Tiranossauro rex?

Remembers the scene of the film “the Park of the Dinossauros” where the Tiranossauro rex pursues a Jeep the 80 km/h? Thing of cinema. The biologist John Hutchinson, of the Stanford University, and Mariano engineer Garci'a, of Cornell, guarantees that the most famous carnivore was so fast as a hen. The speed of the extinct animal was of at least 16 km/h (as of a mouse), and of in 40 maximum km/h (the same that a dog). Source: IstoÉ.

Bonsai did not appear in Japan

The word Bonsai means “plant in planted tray” or “in tray” and says respect to the technique to cultivate miniatured trees. This eastern art appeared in China has about two a thousand years, where if it practised the Penjing, the art to compose landscapes with mount miniatures, rivers and, obviously, trees. The Chinese Bonsais were made with plants of course diminished by the conditions of the places where they grew, as cold mountainous extremity and ground. In Japan, the Bonsai arrived for return of century XI. There, the technique was perfected so that dumb common the pruning and modelação of twigs could be miniatured through.


* Popular in England in centuries XVIII and XIX, the fights of boxe with the discovered hands were brutais. The sport was remodelled in1867 with the Rules of Quensberry. These rules foresaw rounds of three minutes and the use of gloves. They had entered in vigor in 1872.

* Ringue is a square that can measure of 4,90 the 6,10 of each side.

* The gloves weigh between eight and ten ounces (224 the 280 g g).

* The fights have twelve assaults of three minutes. In the Olímpicos Games, the fights are disputed in only three rounds of three minutes.

* Each fight has a group of five juries.

* The bag of trainings weighs between forty and fifty kilos. It is made of stuffed leather and of serragem. Pushing ball, that one menorzinha, weighs between 300 and 500 grams.

* The first valid fight for the heading of weight-heavy was carried through in 7 of September of 1892 for John Lawrence Sullivan and James J. Corbett.

Color of joaninhas indicates “care”

The red coloration with black small spots loaded in the “coasts” of joaninhas, that as much pleases the vision human being, is in the truth an acknowledgment to the birds, its natural enemies, who says “keeps distance, has a very bad taste”. These insects, called coccinelídeos Coleopters, beyond bonitinhos, are extremely beneficial to the man, therefore they are fed of pulgões, animals that suck the seiva of the plants being able to cause serious damages they.

The fox of snows

The Arctic fox is a canídeo animal that lives in the extremity North, in the localities where the temperature is well below-freezing. The acizentada in summer and total white brown pelugem in the winter is one of the hottest of all mammals, still more that of the polar bear, what guarantees its well-being, however it attracts many hunters with commercial interests. Its legs equally are covered of by the ones guaranteeing greater tack to the slippery surfaces of frozen environments. Bichinho of about 30 cm lives in group in burrows that he himself digging. These hiding places have about four the eight linked exits for tunnels that cover an area of up to 30 m ². Some of these tunnels are used have hundreds of years and already they had sheltered some generations of foxes.

Bouncing-of-silt, a fish is of the water

The bouncing-do-silt is one fisk of 15 cm that has a very special particularitity, can breathe d´água outside. Living in the slimy areas ofthe fens and Asian and African lagoons, the bouncing one frequently faces times of drought where the tide low and practically becomes the impossible locomotion the fish. Endowed with great pectoral barbatanas and false feet covered of scales, bichinho can then leave the water and take a walk for firm land, jumping of root in root. Its breath remains thanks to a rudimentary lung and a small water reserve that is accumulated in branchial stock markets. In what it says respect to the feeding, the fish-amphibian possesss a rich diet of insects and worms.
Social bees and solitary bees
Although to be known as sociable beings, nor all the species ofbees live in group. Great part of them lives alone in nests made in trunks of trees or under of the land and they are not you domesticated. Already the social bees live in the known beehives and produce honey, substance made from the nectar, used for the man as sweetener since the Seniority. It has three main classrooms in a colony of bees: the laborers (about sixty a thousand individuals in an average colony), that they guarantee the food, they take care of of the young larvae and they protect the beehive; the drones (one hundred individuals), that they cross to perpetuate the species; e the queen (only one), that it must place eggs, being the only not-barren female of the group.
Tyson, the Demolisher

* Michael Gerald Tyson was born in 30 of June of 1966 in New York, United States.

* It was discovered by Cus D' Amato in the reformatory Tryon School - deposit of youthful delinquents. He had 13 years and deteriorated teeth.

* The first fight of the boxer occurred against Hector Mercedes, in 6 of March of 1985. It was successful in the first assault.

* One of the reasons for the efficiency of the socos of Tyson is the fact of being ambidextrous - to use both the hands with equal easiness.

* To the 20, already he was the youngest champion of the history of the category of the heavy weights. Its commemoration was to spill champagne on the tomb of Cus.

* There the hook of left of this machine to beat already caused an impact of 120 kilos - against 90 kilos of Muhammad and 85 kilos of the Maguila Brazilian.

* Its first defeat was for James “Buster” Douglas, in day 11 of February of 1990, in Tokyo, Japan. Tyson fell in the half of 11º assault.

* It was married two times. Robin Givens, its first wife, little before if separating of the athlete, worse declared in an interview to a national television channel that its conjugal life age “one tortures, a true hell, of what everything that if can imagine”. The two had been together between 1988 and 1989. Its second wife was Monica Turner. Tyson took the young woman to the altar in 1997. They had divorced themselves in 2003.

* In July of 1991, Tyson was invited to integrate the jury of the “Miss Black America”. It finished defendant of rape for one participant them, Desiree Washington. The convict, was for the arrest in order to fulfill a penalty of six years. For good behavior, he passed only four years in the chain.

* Prisoner, Mike Tyson if converted the islamismo into 1992, and adopted the name “Malek Abdul Aziz”. Also he studied philosophy and history of boxe, and tatuou the figure of Hand Tsé-Tung in the arm. Another recorded historical figure in the body of the fighter is Che Guevara, in its abdomen.

* Still in the arrest, it made a tattooing in homage to the tenista deceased black Arthur Ashe in the biceps. Also it had a tooth encapado with gold eighteen carats as talisman.

* In 28 of June of 1997, Tyson was declassified of a fight to pulling out the gears a piece of the ear of the fighter Evander Holyfield. Because of the incident, it took a fine of 3 million dollar and lost the license of boxe of the Nevada.

* During a collective one of the press in 2000, it lost the patience and it started to cry out: “I am a convicted violator! I am an animal! I am the person dullest of boxe! I have to leave daqui before it kills somebody”.

* In 2003, Tyson if saw debtor to decree bankruptcy; its debts accumulated 40 million dollar. A difficult fact of if imagining for that, in the height of the career, possuía a patrimony evaluated in 300 million dollar.

* Tyson locked up its career in 12 of June of 2005, after being defeated by the Kevin Irishan. Its resume counted on 50 victories (44 knock-outs) and five defeats.

* During ticket for Brazil, in 2005, the fighter attacked a cinegrafista in boate paulistana “Lovestory”. In the police station, on the aid of an interpreter, Tyson he counted its version of the events and was set free.

* In the 2006 end, in December, Mike Tyson was imprisoned in Scottsdale, Arizona, for directing under the influence of alcohol and cocaine. The pugilista was condemned to one day of arrest and three years in conditional regimen of freedom.

* Part of the penalty was fulfilled almost one year later, in November of 2007, when Tyson the Tent City, considered one of the arrests most rigid of the world was ordered. There, the former-weight heavy dressed suit of the prisoners the same - striped, black and white - and was obliged to use handcuffs and stockings roses.

* In 26 of May of 2009, to 11h45, Exodus Tyson, son of Mike, were declared deceased after one day of internment. The girl of 4 years was found with the neck rolled in a handle of a mat, in the house of the family, in Phoenix, for the brother Miguel, of 7 years. Beyond Exodus and Miguel, Mike Tyson possesss others five children, with diverse women.

* Tyson if married in ceremony carried through in Wools Vegas, two weeks after the death of Exodus, in day 6 of June of 2009. Lakiha Spicer, that already was accompanying of the fighter before the marriage, is the third wife of Mike Tyson.
S.O.S. vegetable

Recent research carried through for one has equipped of the Institute of Chemical EcologyMax Planck in Jena, in Germany, had shown that the plants emit aid signals when they are attacked. In the experience, tobacco plants, maize, tomatoe, cucumber, amongst other varieties, when being attacked by larvae, had emitted a mixture of volatile chemical components to attract predators of insects. The discovery of the olfativo alarm, beyond supplying importantíssimas information on as vegetables if defends, still can help the scientists to develop pesticides not-toxics, affirms Ian Baldwin and Andres Kessler, responsible for the study.

Elephant can have been aquatic mammal

Australian scientists believe that the whirlwind of the elephant can have if developed to help paquiderme to dive, serving as the onespecies of snorkel. Its studies indicate that the elephant became an aquatic mammal and later came back to the land. The analyses made with embryos and embryos of African elephants had shown, among others things, that its testicules inside develop of abdomen and not in one escroto, the same that happen with the whales and focas, mammals that had evolved in land and had come back to the sea, in order to protect them of the water. The member, that can have evolved for the aquatic life, serves today as nose, hose and tentáculo.

Perhaps if the ice sank in the water did not have life in the Land

Opposing the general rule of the nature, the ice, been solid of the water, it is lighter than the liquid, floating instead of sinking. Such fact occurs because the water becomes enlarged it making solid, phenomenon this of extreme importance for the life in the planet. It imagines if each iceberg sank as soon as was formed. Soon we would have the deep one of the oceans covered of ice. To the few, more and more ice would accumulate until great part of the water made solid. Although the ice to float, the frozen water goes down, thus guaranteeing a continuous oxygenation in the deep one of the seas, lakes, etc. the nature really seems to know what it makes.

Ants versus rain

To protect itself of rain, the ants use well similar methods to ours in the contrução of its houses. The creeps are composites for tunnels that function as the gutters of the houses, absorbing the water of rain and hindering that the other tunnels are flooded. Some types of ants still exist that contróem a central mount covered with sufficiently hard land, that drains the water as they make the roofs.