Cylindrical region that surrounds the Land, in which the solar wind is sped up by the terrestrial magnetic field. At the beginning of the decade of 60 it was uncovered, from measurescarried through for satellite, that the magnetic field of the Land is not extended indefinitely, but is limited to a socket in the interior of the solar system call magnetosphere or magnetic pack.

Wind that turns Light
This socket is created by the interaction of the plasma in high temperatures, deriving of the Sun (the solar wind), with the regions most external and of lesser terrestrial magnetic field strength. One of the sides of the socket points in the direction of the Sun, with its known border as magnetopause, situated about ten terrestrial rays.

In the opposing side, the magnetosphere is extended in a long tail that goes beyond the orbit of the Moon. Other planets that have magnetic fields, such as Mercúrio and Jupiter, also have magnetosphere. In the magnetosphere, the loaded particles are sped up by the change De Campos magnetic and form the cinturões of radiation of Van Allen and the dawns. The magnetosphere protects the Land of harmful the cosmic rays.

The Theory of the Chaos

Since that it appeared as a structure of articulated ideas, in the decade of 60, the theory of the Chaos has excited new, ample and formidable debates on the cause relations and effect that conduct the Universe. During centuries, the scientists had exclusively analyzed the phenomenato the light of the laws of the classic physics. In the last few decades, however, new experiences had indicated that small shunting lines in the initial conditions of a process are capable to radically modify it with elapsing of the time. One is about already the famous “effect-butterfly”. In accordance with this formula-saying, beating of wing of the insect, in Asia, can determine or hinder the occurrence of a terrible storm in the United States. On the basis of new studies, perceive that an incredible and subtle microscopical order of relations is present where before it was presumed that it had only the chaos.

All the events, of most current most complex, obey this fantastic anonymous system of organization. Of this form, the functioning of the heart of a duck, the rain regimen in a tropical forest and the translacionais cycles of the planets have something in common. Are processes regulated for micron-factors that escape to the conventional disgnostic of the veterinarian, the meteorologista and the astronomer. Many times, the whims of this order badly understood are responsible for frightful manifestations of the imponderable one. Why it rained in such a way in this estiagem month? Why occurred such genetic mutation? Why, kicked by the line of deep, the ball took such effect and fell inside of the goal?

These news and until fantasmagóricos concepts have been wide used in the explanation of physical phenomena.

On specialists to sciences human beings, however, identify to the " finger " of the chaos in revolutions politics, transformations economic and the modification of customs and moral rules. The enthusiastic shout of a stranger in the multitude, gone off in thousandth of as appropriate, can be the last vital e necessary element to the deflagration of an armed conflict. The photo of a naked artist, or a simple kiss, can detonate irreversible processes of alteration in the way of a people to conceive the sex and the privacy.

In recent years, the development of the computers has proportionate a fast evolution in the knowledge of the models that determine “bagunça” of the great cosmic house. The capacity to carry through millions of calculations in few seconds, allows the machines to find necessary standards in events before had as random. The great challenge of today is to undertake the trip in return of the fractais whirlwinds of infinite depths. It is treated to decipher the order invisible and to extend the lowermost control of the man on the nature.
Personage the CAP-Man was inspired in pizza

The CAP-Man was created by Tohru Iwatani, to designer of the games of the Namco of Japan, in 1980. The personage was idealized during one supper between friends, inhaled in a pizza with a slice lacking. Its original name, then abandoned for the company, was Puck-Man. The change of the name was determined to prevent that “Puck” turned one trocadilho maldoso between falantes the English language.
Why the people pray kneel and with the joined hands?
At the time of the conquests Romans, the defeated ones in the fights ran in direction to the victorious people, were kneel and extended the hands asking for to be chained. This attitude of suplication was spread out in the Christian Age. Christ was had as the conquering the holy ghost of all the peoples and the fidiciary offices repeated the attitude of humildade of the loosers in the hour to pray.
First Cocaine-glue was vendida in 1886
The first bottle of Coca-Cola was vendida in day 08 of May of 1886, in Atlanta, U.S.A. Created for the druggist John S.Pemberton, the drink was initially vendida as a boiled must capable to cure “all males of the soul and it body” for only $5 cents. For financial difficulties, Pemberton vendeu the formula for the entrepreneur Wing G. Candle in 1891, that the Coca-Cola Company created.
In Brazil, the cooling one arrived informally in 1941, in Recife and was initially produced by the Mineral Water Plant Clara Saint, until miniplants were installed in the pernambucana capital and Christmas, in the Rio Grande of the North. The local one was known as “Running of the Victory”, obligator stop of the ships for the Europe in full World War II.
The first plant of the Cocaine-glue was installed in then the capital one of Brazil, Rio De Janeiro. Where, in 18 of April of 1942, ml. left Rio De Janeiro 185 first Refreshments garrafinhas of

Foreseeing the future

The man, this intrinsically curious animal, since daily pay-history develops techniques to predict the future. Always worried inwell-being occurred, he tries to read of some form the signals that bring a good or bad jinx. If its techniques function or not, only it uses who them can say. What we can affirm, with total certainty, is that many of them are extremely interesting. We are made familiar to some forms of forecasts, as the astrology (reading of the atros), the cartomancia (for baralhos) and the quiromancia (reading of the hands), however has many others being used for there. Click and sees some of the more curious divinatórias forms here already created by the humanity.


* The human body delay of 30 the 60 minutes to absorb a cup of agua.

* It is composed for 70% of water.

* The camels obtain to drink up to 120 liters of water of one alone time.

* The musician Ludwig van Beethoven had the habit to play water frozen in the head while he composed.

* To dive in the water of a height of 100 meters corresponds to fall in a concrete flagstone.

* In Old Greece, it was custom to shoot currencies in the sources so that they never dried.

* In one hour, an oak produces 4 a thousand liters of vapor.

* The water if transforms into acid when it enters in contact with the volcanic gases.
Ambientalistas modifies commerce of skins

The action of the ambientalistas and protectors of animals made with that the commerce of skins diminished drastically in last the 20 years. The majority of the estilistas, currently, does not use skins in its creations and has professional models, as Kate Moss, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turligton and Claude Schiffer, between many others, that they do not accept to act in parades where done or decorated clothes with skins are shown. Thus exactly, the businesses of this area still put into motion about 648 million dollar, meaning the sacrifice of at least 3 million and 500 a thousand animals.

Artistic legacy of Elvis relieves dollar millions

Is established truth that artists do not know to manage its finances personal. Legendary Elvis Presley, when dying, was to the side of the bankruptcy, which had to the excesses that committed in substance of expenses. However, the artistic legacy that left, at the hands of professional administrators not only zeroed the debts as if it became a lucrative business very. In 1997, its son and heiress, Lisa Marie Presley, for signal former-woman of Michael Johnson, could receive the part that fit to it in the estate. He added the trinket of 130 million dollar.

The stored water can ruin?

Water can ruin case is stored of form or in wrong places. Ifyou to full a water bucket and to leave it motionless per some days, will see that the container was invaded by larvae of insects, fungos and other forms of life, having then that to purificar it so that if she becomes again potable. To keep it in a closed container also offers risks, therefore the water or the proper container can already be contaminated with the bacteria. Moreover, the pot where it is left necessary to be adjusted for the storage. If it was placed in an aluminum basin, for example, then the metal would poison the water. The substances that can be used to store liquid are the glass, stainless steel and some plastics.

The ostriches do not thread the head in the land
If they made this, would die suffocated. Its legs are enough great for these birds to be defended of attack who them - or to run away running. They, in the truth, lean the ear in the soil to perceive the vibration of the ground and the approach of eventual predators. In this position, the animal also obtains to join the vegetation and to move away any danger from attack.
High and the low ones in the financial world

Basically the actions serve to divide the expenses of a company. When somebody the purchase, the paid money is injected in the company, guaranteeing capital so that the same one grows. What the owner of the actions receives in exchange is the profit sharing. Therefore the actions suffer high and low the time all, therefore if the company tends to go badly or if the economy of the country enters in crisis, the people starts to vender them and the price of the same ones falls, therefore nobody wants to invest in a bad business. However, when the company is well in the market and has a profit expectation, its price is raised since it offers financial return. In few words, the price of the actions is controlled for the factor offers and looks for, as well as for the forecasts of the situation of the companies and the markets, that depends very, in our globalizado world, of the economic stability of the country.

Profession: eater of lesmas

In the poor countries the people need to make absurd things to support itself. In Uganda, for example, she has the informal craft of eater of animals (livings creature). People who are paid to prove exotic spices as lizards, snakes, lesmas, sapos, rats, insects, etc. Namenya, a young that died recently for having ingested a camaleão, charged about R$1,7 degustar a head of snake or lizard, R$1,15 for the frog, R$0,57 for the rat and R$0,23 for the butterfly.

The smallest vertebrate of the world lives in Indonesia

The smaller vertebrate animal of the world was discovered in ilhof Samatra, in Indonesia. The “recordista” is a fish with 7,9 millimeters of length.

The “progenetic Paedocypris” is a fish of the family of the carp but of dimensions much more reduced. The adult specimens measure between 7,9 and 8.6 millimeters of length, consonant if deals with females or males.

Although its very small size, the fish possesss pelvic barbatanas with bonanza great muscles that use to grasp the female during the acasalamento, they assure the investigators.

The “progenetic Paedocypris” is still characterized for having a transparent body, when adult, what them of a appearance of a larva, and for living in dark waters, one hundred more acid times of what the water of rain.

The food scarcity does not seem to worry these specimens that, given its size, if saciam with a small amount of plâncton. The investigators believe that with the destruction of its habitat already some populations of this type of fish have themselves lost, but lull to sleep the hope still to have time to investigate more on the species.

Scientists create battery of cellular that she recharges in 10 seconds

Not, you did not read wrong. A revolutionary battery that is recharged in only 10 seconds, instead of some hours, was criada for American scientists north of the Massachusetts Institute of Tecnology (MIT).

The secret is in a new device that more fast receives load 100 times from what a conventional battery, being able to be used in cellular, portable computers, iPods and digital cameras.

The same technology also will be able to allow that an electric car has more autonomy of use, eliminating one of the biggest obstacles for the nature: the use of a cleaner fuel. Moreover, the involved team in the development affirms that its invention uses materials that already are available, becoming simpler the production in mass of the battery.

What everything indicates, the model of lithium-fer-fosfato battery (LiFePO4) will be lesser and lighter of what the current models. Currently, the batteries of LiFePO4 allow to store great amounts of energy, but the load processes and discharge delay some hours.

According to Daily Mail, with the discovery of Byoungwoo Kang and Gerbrand Ceder, scientists of the MIT, a battery of car could, since that it has an adapted porter, be recharged in five minutes, against the six or eight hours that delay currently.
How appear the black holes?
The black holes appear of the “mortal remains” of the stars. While active, them they are remained alive, therefore the heat who emanatepushes its mass for the exterior whereas it pulls them to the gravity for inside, thus keeping a constant balance. However, as soon as its “fuel” finishes and they erase themselves, only the gravity remain, sucking its surface for the center and becoming them extremely dense. When the star is very great, the generated gravity is so strong that everything that if to approach is sucked for inside. Not even the light, the element fastest of the universe, obtains to escape. A body of the size of our Sun (1.394.000 km) needs to reach only 6 km of diameter for such. What it is equivalent to transform the biggest mountain of the Land into a butterfly, but keeping the weight of the mountain. Apocalyptic of plantão, they are calmed! For the formation of a hole it is necessary that the star is very bigger that our Sun (about 3,2 solar masses), then that it erased, we would exactly not be sucked, would only die of cold.
Why the sky is blue?

We know that the light is formed by the union of some colors. When entering in contact with the atmosphere, it is spread due to existing particles in air. However the waves of each color are spread of different form, depending on its length. The more short, more dispersed they become. The length of the blue wave makes with that it if spreads the sufficient to give to the sky the tonality that we see. No longer final of the afternoon, the sun illuminates obliquely, compelling the rays to make a longer way to arrive at the Land. Such dispersed fact almost total the blue light and becomes visible the red, that possesss a bigger length, giving the spectacle to us of the put-do-sun.

Because the orientals have the pulled eyes

In the truth the eyes of the orientals (and not exclusively of the Japanese, as well as of Chinese, native of Koreas, tailandeses, etc) “are not pulled” and yes the eyelid is smoother, and not curve as in the occidental eyes. The ridge palpebral superior, generally clear-cut and about7 mm above of the ciliar line in the occidental people, is absent in the orientals. This ridge becomes more evident if opening the eyes. It has in the orientals the aspect amendoado with rise of it I sing lateral. The inferior eyelid is characterized by excess of orbital fat, fat daily pay-tarsal (posterior portion) and excess of skin in the medial part.

These characteristics had probably elapsed of a process of natural election, since the eastern eyes more are adjusted for protection against the rigorous cold. Possibly the populations that had obtained to fix residence to the east of the first Himalaia had fort trend in this profile, and that it was remained with passing of the centuries.

Moreover, this trace must have been an advantage for the inhabitants of cold regions, therefore its function is seemed the one of the eyeglasses of the esquiadores, that possess a viewfinder in crack form to reduce the luminosity reflected for the snow. This seems logical, since mongolóides, that they have this characteristic, had appeared of an area frozen in the north of Asia, has about 10 a thousand years. As the white imensidão of the cold regions it very reflects the light solar that arrives at the surface, who deferred payment in these places can have sight problem in the long run - since momentânea blindness until certain upheavals of retina -, what it would explain the predominance of the eyes pulled in the natural election.

It has differences between the different standards (Chinese, korean, Japanese) but that they are subtle for the occidental eyes.

Strange situations stimulate the brain

The note of three dollar; the nun with beard; the verse, removed of the poem of Lewis Carroll, that “roldavam and relviam in the gramilvos”.

Summarizing, an experience that violates all logic and expectation. The philosopher Soren Kierkegaard wrote that such abnormalitys produced a deep “sensation of queerness”, and it was not the only one to take these abnormalitys the serious one. Freud, in a called assay “the Stranger”, demonstrated the sensation of the fear of death, castration or “something that must have been hidden, but that it came to tona”

In the best one of the hypotheses, the feeling is confused. In worse, he is frightful.

A current study it suggests that, contradictorily, this same sensation can take the brain to perceive not perceivable standards in another occasion --in the mathematical equations, the language, the world of general form.

“We want in such a way exempting in them of that feeling that we look for meaning and coherence in all place”, it said Travis Proulx, pupil of after-doutorado of the University of California, in Saint Bárbara, and main author of the article, published in the current edition of the periodic Psychological Science. “We lead the feeling for another project, and this seems to improve some types of learning”.

It has much time, the researchers know that the people if arrest its personal beliefs still more when the feeling is threatened. When remembering that the death is inevitable, the strangers become more patriotic, more religious and less tolerant, according to research. When offended, friends reveal more loyalty - and when they are knowing that a questions test of and answer had not been given well in, identify themselves more with the winning teamses of the college.

In an article series new, Proulx and Steven J. Heine, professor of psychology in the University of British Columbia, argue that these discoveries are variations of the same process: to keep the meaning, or the coherence. The brain was developed to make forecasts, and this occurs when identifying standards.

When these standards if breach - the example of when a mochileiro if it comes across with a chair in the interior of the forest, as it had been fallen of the sky - the brain look something, any thing that makes sensible. It can appeal to a familiar ritual, as to check an equipment. However, according to researchers, this can come back its attention toward the external way, and also notice a standard of tracks of animals that was occult. The desire to find a standard coherent becomes most likely that the brain will discover one.

The first devices of gymnastics

The magazine “Cabinet” found the precursor of these machines with complicated and commercial names that never seem to finish.

The first equipment of gymnastics with mechanical contractions of the world was created by the Swedish Gustav Zander, in the end of century XIX. Thus the vendia inventor its idea: “a remedy that prevents males created by the sedentary life and the isolation of the work”.

More than one hundred years later everything it continues equal (or worse): mirabolantes sedentarismo, people living in offices and devices that do not function.

The origin of the livened up drawing

The precursor of the animation was the Belgian professor Joseph Plateau.

In 1832, it invented the fenacistoscópio equipment - a record withfigures made use around the center that seem to put into motion when the mechanism is turned.

The idea was to present a fast succession of drawings of different periods of training of an action, being created the illusion of that an only drawing if put into motion.

The first livened up drawing was Humorous phases of funny faces (comic Phases of funny faces), made in 1907 for the English J. Stuart Blackton.

With the arrival of the sound, Walt Disney produced, in 1933, the three little pigs, whose musical subject, Who has fear of the bad wolf? , if he became celebrates.

The history of the Mario

In 1980, after an attempt without success of Nintendo when making a game based on the drawing Popeye, Miyamoto, considered the father of the Mario, was then requested for the company to project a new game based on its proper ideas. The result of this was Donkey Kong, in the personage“Jumpman” (Mario) tried to save its namorada Pauline of gorila Donkey Kong.

To be seen as human being and not as a mutant or something seemed, they had placed in Mario, an enormous mustache. In the United States, the people had perceived that Mario was extremely similar to an employee of the Nintendo, called Mario Segali, from there came the idea to change the name of Jumpman for Mario, that already started to be used in the next game to Miyamoto, Donkey Kong Jr.

Mario originally was carpenter, but after the pipes in which it entered literally, in famosíssimo game Mario Bros, passed to be considered plumber. After the tremendous success in the Mario Bros, the personage was being worked still more. They had created Luigi, its brother, moreover, had mounted an elaborated history most, with well defined objectives and villains, beyond developing them to be able and the friends of Mario.

The plumber is without a doubt the main Nintendo icon and perhaps either also, the main one of the electronic games. The Mario series already more than possesss 184 million vendidas copies, and the games of Mario go since modest Super Nintendo until the Wii modern, both of Nintendo.
The classifier of galaxies

Edwin Hubble (1889-1953) was the responsible one for the classification of the galaxies as we know today. It was who proved, in years 20, that they are as “islands”, moving itself separately. The ones are its also that they make possible to identify the relation in the distance enters and speed with that if they put into motion, reason this known as constant Hubble. The astronomer was formed itself in right for the University of Oxford and appends later left for astronomy, its true passion.

Palitos of matches

The Chinese used “fire small sticks” in year 1000.
But he was in 1669 that the German alchemist Hennig Brandt discovered the element accidentally match (“what she brings the light”, in Greek) nakedme of its attempts to transform metals into gold.

The discovery arrived at the knowledge of the English physicist Robert Boyle (1627-1691), that it invented, 11 years later, a rough sheet of paper covered of match, folloied of one varinha with sulphur in one of the tips.
I invent it, however, it was only one very expensive curiosity.

In 1826 English chemistry John Walker only presented the palitos of match, then with 8 centimeters of length.
In the truth, it was to use a palito to mix potassium and antimony, that if set on fire when it was scraped to the rock soil.

The danger was that the palitos costumavam to set on fire themselves inside alone of the packing.
This problem would only be decided in 1855, with the sprouting of the security match, created for the Swedish Johan Edvard Lundstrom.

In it, the inflammable ingredients had been separate in two: part in the head of the palito, part of the side of is of the box, together with the abrasive material.
The first petty cash of matches was patented by American lawyer Joshua Pusey, in 1892, and produced for a company of Ohio 4 years later.
The history of the hair transplants
The hair transplants date of the beginning of century 19. In medical books on the subject it has stories of experiences with transplants of for the ones of animals already in 1804, made for a European doctor called Baromio. In 1822, dr. Diffenbach if would specialize in transplants of hair and skin. Parallel, the Japanese had carried through some experiences, perhaps because gueixas and prostitutes had for pulled out pubianos e, when “moved of life”, they appealed to the doctors for a transplant; or perhaps for some victims in earthquakes.

Space garbage

European Space Agency (ESA, in the acronym in English divulged in this tuesday images of the space garbage in orbit in return of the Land.
According to agency, between the first launching, in 1957, and January of 2008, about 6 a thousand satellites already they had been sent for the terrestrial orbit. Of these, only 800 would be active and 45% would be located to a distance of up to 32 a thousand kilometers of the terrestrial surface.

Beyond the disactivated satellites, the satellite photos show space residues as fragmentos of space aircraft that if they had broken, they blown up or they had been abandoned. In accordance with the ESA, approximately 50% of the objects that can be tracked is derived from explosions or collisions in the terrestrial orbit.
The launching of the Sputnik - the first artificial satellite, launched in 1957 for the Soviets, marked the beginning of the use of the space for science and the commercial activity.

During the Cold War, the space if became the main land of competition between the United States and the old Soviet Union - a dispute that reached its apex with the race to conquer the Moon, in the decade of 60.
By occasion of the Olimpíadas of Tokyo, in 1964 the first satellite of television for the terrestrial orbit was launched, with the objective to transmit the Olímpicos Games.

Later, the Russian launchings had diminished and other countries had inaugurated its space programs.
A estimate of the ESA indicates that the object number in the terrestrial orbit grew in steady way since the first launching. According to given, about 200 new objects they are launched every year.
In 2001, the American researchers Donald Kessler and Philip Anz-Meador, that study the space garbage, had affirmed have a possibility of that, in twenty years, already it is not more possible to carry through operations in orbits next to the Land.

Cemetaries of airplanes

The place in the way desert it is known as cemetary of airplanes. They are 4,550 aircraft.
Any country that had access to these equipment if would become a military rated power.
In the enormous desert of Arizona, aircraft that had bombed cities and killed enemies now rest in silence.
Powerful the Hércules is chained, to prevent an undesirable flight, in a storm of the American desert.

The dry air of Arizona, however, is a remedy against the corrosion.
E the white covering that of the one pale tone to the huge ones reflects the heat of the desert and prevents the consuming of the parts.
The center of maintenance and regeneration of aircraft of the United States was created to keep the airplanes that had survived to World War II.
Later they had come new confrontations, new technologies and more pensioners.
But if it is not deceptive: the ghosts of the desert can come back at any time to skies.

The History of the Nitendo

Nintendo was established in 1889 for called craftsman Fusajiro Yamauchi, in Japan.

The company, who is today one of the world-wide leaders in the video market games, produced letters of baralho called Hanafunda, one known pastime of the time, leaving for America 20 years later, with occidental baralhos.

But in middle of the decade of 50 she is that the company entered in the branch of toys, until in 1975 signed a contract with the Magnavox, distributing the old Odissey in Japan. Later, they had two years launched its proper platform in partnership with the Mitsubishi Electrics, Color TV Game 6, that she twirled some versions different of Tennis and vendeu six million copies.
How much hard time a dream?

Old it was thought that the dreams happened in flashs(fraction of seconds), today is known that they in the truth occupy real time in our mind, that is, happen in the same speed who we imagine to be living deeply them. A hard common dream of 10 the 40 min. Its plot always is related with in our fears, concerns, desires or things that are for happening. Some people imagine that they do not dream, what it is not truth, do not only remember themselves to have it done. This occurs because to remember a dream she is necessary to wake up at the moment where it happens.


* Desert is a region that receives little rain (of zero to the 500 milliliters per year) and that it has a high index of atmosphericevaporation, that is, is a place that loses more water of what it earns.

* Some polar regions are considered desert-like by receiving little rain (about 250 milliliters per year), however, in these regions, the evaporation of the water of the ground is almost null, had the white color of the snow that reflects the heat, and the humidity of air is high.

* In a conventional desert the time is almost always dry, the hot days and the cold nights.

* Although the image that if has of the desert, with sand mounts without end, the sand alone occupies 20% of the total area of the deserts of the world.

* It is resulted of the accumulation of loaded sediments for the wind. Most of the sand is in the deserts that are in the region of the trade winds, that are two current forts of wind that if they form for the heating of air next to the equatorial region. In this region it is the desert greater of the world, the Saara.

* The region of the trade winds also is very hot, therefore the strong winds push clouds, aumentanto the amount of solar rays that happen on the land.

* The majority of the deserts is full untied gravel plains and rocks. Some, that in the past had been stream beds of lakes and rivers, present accumulations of salt, plaster and precious rocks. The desert of the Atacama, in Chile, for example, is a great sodium nitrate reservoir, known as salitre.

* The animals and plants that inhabit the deserts have capacities special to keep the internal humidity. Scorpions and other insects have exoesqueleto (carapaça) harder than the normal one. It functions as a tank, keeping the heat is. Mammals and small reptiles are entocados the day all, only leave to feed themselves during the night, when he is more cold. Beyond if not burning in the sun, the breath inside of the sultry burrow leaves the environment most humid.

* The plants that survive in the desert are tolerant dry and to the salt. They store water as she will be possible, in caule, the root or even in leves. Some possess well long roots to reach freáticos sheets.