North American scientist and dutch artist create “skin” to the test of bullet.

A scientist of the State University of Utah, in the United States, with the aid of a dutch artist, created a mixture of silk with skin human being capable to resist the detonation of bullets.
Randy Lewis supplied wires supplied for animal-of-silk genetically manipulated the Jalila Essaidi, that confectioned the “superskin” also using skin cells human being. The animals had been modified to produce the silk typical of teias of spiders, that is more resistant.
After tests with projectiles of bore 22, the material if showed resistant to the detonations and it was not breached, despite the bullets have penetrated in part of the layers of the “skin”.
Lewis believes that the silk produced for spiders can help surgeons to cure serious wounds and to create artificial tendões and ligaments in the future. During another study, it already he had applied genes of spiders in goats to get a loaded milk with wide amounts of the responsible protein for the production of the silk.

The olfato as key of intelligence

The scientists already had asked to numerous times why the mammals (also the human beings) had been capable to develop bigger and complex brains that other animals, brains that in some cases had grown more up to ten times than relative the corporal size?

Now, a team of paleontólogos carried through an one study published in the Science magazine, where they creem to have discovered the reason: to facilitate a sensible sharp of the olfato. The secret meets in two miniature mammals of the beginning of the Jurássico with aspect of musaranho.

Researchers of the universities of the Texas and St Mary and the Museum Carnegie de Natural História in Pittsburgh (Pensilvânia) had used one technique of cat scan computorizada with rays X to study the rare fósseis of the skulls of two creatures, the Morganucodon and the Hadrocodium, of 190 million years of antiquity, whose remaining portions had been found in China.

The team discovered that these animals, two of the first known species of mammals, had well bigger brains that the waited one, especially to take in account its scarce corporal mass. The Hadrocodium badly weighed two grams.

The computorizada cat scan allowed the researchers to observe the interior of the skull of these animaizinhos without having that to destroy the valuable fósseis. Later, they had constructed a virtual mold of its brains, that had been compared with another dozen of fósseis and the brains of 200 species of mammals that live currently.

The results, according to scientists, had been surprising. Also it has 190 million years, the brain of the first mammals was especially great (in relation its corpora mass), with a size that if approaches to the ratios seen in the modern mammals.

After observing the three-dimensional images, the scientists had arrived at the conclusion of that the brain of the mammals evolved in three main stages: first he improved the direction of the olfato, later the tato or the sensitivity of the one for the corporal one, that he acted as a controller of the space and, finally, coordination to neuromuscular it.

Second, Zhe-Xi, one of the responsible ones for the article:

- “Our study sample clearly that the olfativa part of the brain and the entailed part to the tactile sensation through the skin if had extended in these first mammals.”

Box keeps heart beating, is of the body

Researchers of the hospital of the University of California (Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center), in U.S.A., had constructed a machine capable to outside keep the heart beating of the human body. Thus, the agency can be still more active time to the wait of the cardiac transplant.

Until the moment, the agencies livings creature were carried from the givers to the patients embedded in the ice in coolants to keep them cool. However, this method alone functions for about six hours, reason for which helicopters, airplanes and ambulances are used to speed up the transport for the country.

Now, a transparent plastic box makes the service. The Organ Care System (OCS) - developed by the TransMedics company - aconchega the heart in the ideal temperature and all supplies it blood, oxygen and nutrients to it necessary to continue beating with security. A connected monitor sample still as the agency is functioning during the transport.

How the salamanders obtain to regenerate its members?

In the nature we can appreciate in greater or minor degree the regenerative capacity. But it has an amphibian that it calls the attention sufficiently and is object of many studies for its capacity to regenerate one of its members some times.

We speak of the salamander. When one of these salamanders loses, for example, a leg, forms on “cotoco” a small lump, called blastema [/url] [/b], that in turn only delay 3 weeks in if transforming into a new completely functional leg, a sufficiently short period if leading more in account that the animal can live 12 years or. In a human being, this would be equivalent to not more than regenerate an arm or leg in 5 months.
When a salamander loses one of its legs, the sanguine vases of “cotoco” if they contract soon: it is scrumbled hemorrhage and a layer of dermic cells recovers the surface quickly. During the following days to the injury, this epidermis is changedded into a layer of emitting cells of indispensable signals for the success of regeneration.

The fibroblastos (cells of the fabric connective that intervines in the cicatrização of wounds) migram and are dislocated for the surface of the cut to be joined in the center of the wound. There the cells of blastema proliferate.

Until it has some few years, gave credit that the cells of blastema were capable to regenerate any fabric. But a study developed for the Center of Regenerative Therapies of Dresde in Germany and published in 2009 it demonstrated that the cells of blastema do not become pluripotenciais during the regeneration of members.

Instead of this, they hold back one strong memory of its fabric of embryonic origin. That is, that the cells of the muscle manufacture muscle and of the cartilage, cartilage. According to researchers, the potential of the cells is restricted and they do not regenerate any type of agency or fabric.

Beyond regeneration, the salamanders make it without they are with sequelas such as scars. To reconstruct weaveeed without leaving scar some is something that also would result very beneficial it Human being, since the fabric cicatricial in certain parts of the anatomy human being can hinder the correct recovery of the functionality same them, beyond the aesthetic questions to show the scars in visible places.

Scientists unmask as bat-vampire knows where to bite

The vampires of the films know that the neck is optimum place to bite to obtain the blood of a defenseless maiden. But as its relatives of the real world, the bat-vampires, they make this evaluation was a mystery for the scientists. Now, American researchers had discovered that an joined special molecule in the nerves of these animals the aid to detect optimum place to bite its canine tooth.

According to group of the University of California in San Francisco, the molecule if calls TRPV1 and is capable to detect minimum variations of temperature, as a minidetector infra-red ray. With this, the animals know accurately where to bite to make right a vein and to liberate the blood.

A variation of the same molecule also is found in the human beings: it helps, for example, to detect the flavor of a pepper or to identify a surface that can relieve a burning.
The discovery was published in the specialized magazine Nature in this Wednesday (3).

Scientists find bacterium that gets energy of hydrogen

n international team of researchers found for the first time, in the abissais deepenings of the ocean, bacteria that use hydrogen as power plant to produce substance organic, informed in this Wednesday the National Center of Scientific Research of France (CNRS, in the acronym in Frenchman).
The results of the research, carried through with the German institute Max Planck and the University of Harvard, U.S.A., and published for the scientific magazine “Nature”, open “interesting perspectives” in the sector of the biotechnologies and of the energies you renewed, according to a note of the CNRS.

The scientists had found the bacteria the 3,2 a thousand meters of depth in the field of Logatchev, a submarine mountain range in the way it way between the Caribbean and the African islands of Green Handle.
The region is a zone of production of hidrotermal energy in which these organisms, that live in symbiosis with mussel banks, consume up to 50% of set free hydrogen.
According to given collected, in the analyzed extension of land they are consumed up to 39 million liters of hydrogen per year.
The researchers had also discovered that the responsible gene for the chemical transformation of hydrogen can be found equally in bacteria that live in association with other hidrotermais organisms, as worms and shrimps.
“The discovery implies that the capacity to use hydrogen as power plant is habitual (...) in the places where the hydrogen abunda”, designated the CNRS.
These “extreme” ecosystems interest particularly the scientists for sheltering conditions in which if they develop forms of primary life on the Land, it explained the French center.
In these hidrotermais zones, the animals live in symbiosis with bacteria that are capable to produce organic substance by means of the transformation of chemical energy, instead of making it by means of the luminous energy, as in the case of the plants.
Although already they have been discovered capable bacteria of if feeding of methane and sulfureto of hydrogen, the hydrogen use for the same ones results more interesting for the scientists. According to CNRS, its productivity the others are up to 18 times superior of these two power plants.

The valuable blue blood of the crab-horseshoe

The crab-horseshoe (Limulus polyphemus) is one of the beings livings creature older than they exist in the planet. One stranger creature who seems exit of the film “Alien”, capable to support up to one year without if feeding and to resist extreme temperatures and salinities. A fossil living creature that inhabits our planet since has 445 million years before also that the dinossauros.
But now its number if finds in decrease of slow form, but constant, due to climatic change, it fishes it predatory and the captures for the pharmaceutical industries. Unhappyly for the animal, its quoted blue blood has numerous medical uses and is used to save myriad lives human beings.
Since 1950, when scientists had discovered that the blood of blue color of the crab-horseshoe if coagulava in contact with the bacteria E.coli and Salmonela, the research had never more stopped. One of these last studies if centered in a peptídeo that the crab-horseshoe elaborates and that it inhibits the response of the Virus of the Imunodeficiência Human being. The assays daily pay-physicians show that he is so effective as the zidovudina, a classic medicine against the AIDS. Also astronauts of NASA had tested in International the Space Station a medical device of high technology that uses primitive enzymes of the crabs of horseshoe for the diagnosis of illnesses human beings.
The secret that makes that the blood of the crab is of great utility for the biomedical industry is based on the simplicity and effectiveness of its imunológico system. A true enzyme cascade, that produces coagulation when they meet with the material of the cellular walls of the majority of the bacteria. The crab-horseshoe lives under constant threat of the infection in a habitat that can contain thousand of millions of bacteria for milliliter.
The difference of the human beings, the crabs do not have hemoglobina in the blood, senão that use the hemocianina to carry oxygen. E is due to copper presence in the hemocianina and not of iron, that the blood acquires the peculiar blue color.
This blue blood is so important that probably many of us we must the life to these crabs. E is not one exaggerates since the LAL (lisado of amebócitos of Limulus) watery extract of amebócitos of the crab is used with frequency in tests to detect the bacterial endotoxinas in numerous pharmaceutical products. Beyond being a form singela, cockroach and insurance to detect impurities are an important tool in the development of new antibiotics and vaccines.
The blood of the crab-horseshoe if not only converted into a powerful “medical weapon”, also is a great business. In the world-wide market, one liter of blood of this crab has an approach price of 15.000 dollars. An industry that generates 50 million dollar to the year alone in U.S.A. But this empalidece in comparison with its value for the pharmaceutical industry.
To get composition LAL, the blood of the least is required 500,000 crabs to the year, of which they are around extracted of 100 milliliters having perforateed the pericárdio of its primitive heart. During process 15% of the crabs they die, excessively are returned to the water.

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Youngling of leopard of 2 months calls attention almost making pose human being

The leopard-misty youngling “Sumalee”, been born in 14 of June in a zoo in the American state of Washington, called attention in photos made in the last days. It obtained to support itself on the two back legs and to open the front legs, in a pose almost human being. OZoológico and Aquário de Point Defiance are next to the city to Tacoma, and are one of the three only ones of the country that reproduce this species of felino, threatened of extinguishing.

Tubarão rare that it shines in the dark one can become “invisible”

The first detailed study of rare the splendid Tubarão lantern (splendid lantern shark, Etmopterus splendidus) it discloses that it not only shines in the dark one, but its effect of light create a “mantle of the invisibilidade” protects that it of predators.

The research is also the first one to around register the presence of the Tubarão of cylindrical form in waters of the Okinawa islands, in Japan. Previously, it was confirmed that the Tubarão existed only in the Sea of Eastern China, to the plaza of Taiwan, and in waters to the south of Japan.

Its spectacle of natural light, produced for fotóforos called emitting agencies of light, serves for some functions. Perhaps the layer of the invisibilidade is most beneficial of these functions, therefore it helps to protect the small Tubarão.

“The fotóforos substitute the light of the sun, that is absorbed by the body of the Tubarão”, the scientist Julien Claes explains. “The silhouette of the Tubarão, therefore, disappears when seen of low”.

The researcher and its colleagues had collected and kept three units of the Tubarão lantern in captivity.

The analyses had disclosed that each one had nine distinct luminous zones. Some of these zones, as one in the belly, contribuíam for the effect “mantle of the invisibilidade”. Others, still more shining, were gifts in the sexual agencies, the flanks, the tail and pectoral paddles of the Tubarão.

The researchers suspect that these zones are probably used during adestramento and sexual communication. “The tubarões use internal fertilização, therefore the presence of fotóforos in the sexual agencies can facilitate the acasalamento”, said Claes. “Moreover, also it can be a way tubarões to signal them that they are ready to acasalar, or that they are better candidates for the reproduction”.

The scientists also believe that mainly the nerves and hormones control the light, with pigments if moving cells as party to suit.

This luminescence probably evolved when the tubarões lantern had colonized the deep one of the sea during the end of the Cretáceo, the 65 75 million years behind. The splendid Tubarão lantern, today, lives of 200 the 1,000 meters below of the surface, areas with extremely low levels of light.

Previously, the same team studied another member of this family of tubarões, lixinha of the fundura (velvet belly lantern shark, Etmopterus spinax). As much this as the splendid Tubarão lantern has luminous zones and other similar characteristics.

It is, therefore, probable that its capacity to shine evolved very before its clado one (group of organisms originated from only ancestral a common one) dividing, at least 31,55 million years behind. It is until possible that many other prehistoric marine animals could shine in the dark one.

“Unhappyly, the phenomenon of the bioluminescência in soft fabrics does not leave, or leaves few, fósseis tracks very”, said Claes. “Therefore, it is very difficult to establish if animal prehistoric they were luminous, but it is probably the case, at least in the deep one of the sea”.

At least 33 species they exist in this family of Tubarão, however, still has very to be discovered on these inhabitants of the deepenings of the ocean.

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