Maximum speed exceeds light-light twice!!!!!

Light confusion
Is still echoing in the air of the results of a recent survey, evil "translated" by the press in General as a "proof" of the impossibility of time travel.
To further confuse things, two independent groups of researchers have just demonstrate two different ways to make light pulses to travel at a speed higher than the 300,000 km/h set by Einstein's special theory of relativity.
Oddly enough, the conclusions of these new studies do not dispute that work of time travel and not tip the theory of relativity, but can have practical results, allowing real increases in the speed of information transmission by optical fibres.
Ways to see the light
Surpassing other jobs that have already demonstrated photons traveling faster than light and claimed particles, physicists now managed to make "a lot of light" seems to travel faster than would be allowed.
In the experiments, the light emerges from the other side even before you have entered material in front of that material.
All the confusion with these experiments emerges from the many ways in which the light can be "seen" and interpreted.
A pulse of light, for example, can be seen as a kind of electromagnetic radiation wave chispando by space. So, if you make a graph of the intensity of this pulse, it will start at zero, climbing gently to form a single peak, and then declining again to zero.
But one can also imagine that as a collection of waves with different wavelengths. What was once a single peak a single pulse of light, is the result of the sum of a series of waves oscillating up and down and overlapping on each other.
In the center of the wrist, the various waves align and reinforce each other, unlike the ascent and descent of the pulse, where the waves are out of sync and end up canceling.
Magic sandwich
The team from the universities of California (USA) and Imperial College London (Great Britain), author of the first study, adopted this point of view and built a hybrid material capable of reducing the speed of some wavelengths of light more than others.
This changed the way waves line up and shifted that peak-the point where the various waves reinforce doing peak jump ahead at a speed greater than the speed of light.
The material is a sandwich containing a copper perforated plate placed between two layers of Teflon 0.79 mm. These two layers keep the brightness and the direction of light waves, while the pattern of holes in the metal strengthens these waves.
The result was that the peak of the pulse of light emerged from the other side of the sandwich before entering the sandwich itself.
While the earlier experiments were less than 1% of pulses of light breaking the cosmic speed limit, the interaction between the metal and the teflon allowed up to 10% of the light to reach the other side 100 picoseconds before than they would if obeyed traffic rules cosmic.
Interpretation of relativity
But this doesn't violate the theory of relativity because this would require that the individual waves travel at a speed exceeding the exactly 299,792,458 meters per second.
Today, physicists interpret the relativity of a slightly more subtle: they consider that the theory of relativity States that the information cannot be transmitted faster than light.
And is the front of the first waves overlap-and not the exact position of the peak pulse of light-that determines the speed at which information can flow. This is why this experiment does not dispute the result of recent research which showed that the precursor of a photon optical does not exceed the speed of light.

effects of pi ...

Good afternoon (at least in Portugal:-)).
I'm new to the forum and by polls haven't figured out this curiosity. And I hope it is here the place to place.
Sending this post by sharing and searching for interpretations that allow its acceptance banal than by
mathematical verification: this is easy and undeniable.
There are no tricks in the situation, by the way!

1st question (heating): If we put a string around a glass of circular Board, if we add one metre to the length of this wire,
and if we put again around the same glass, that distance (more or less) is the new wire from the edge of the Cup?
second question ("piece de resistance"): If we put a wire around the Earth (in Ecuador), if you add a
metro, and if we put again around the Earth (Yes, even in Ecuador, I said that there are no tricks, that distance:-))
the surface of the Earth is the new wire?

We are even seeing the answer, of course. What I ask is if someone have interpretations which are easily accepted by the citizen
whose math is distant enough to say (as I was told to me): "This mathematics is ok in small
also circles, but on Earth is impossible. No way! "

Thanks and regards to all.

Who is the Peter Pan of the sea?

This is the Mexican Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), a strange and curious frog in that never grows, it saves all your life, and the tadpole aspect if you lose, your tail grows rapidly and again. Why is considered "forever young" and receive the nickname "Peter Pan of the sea".

The fact that they do not try metamorphosis and not age is due to the fact that your pituitary gland does not release a hormone that activates the thyroid glands. Administering you thyroid hormones, thyroxine, scientists have managed to do with age, develop lungs and turns into an adult form that does not exist in nature.

Discovered the first iridescent mammal in the world.

The iridescence – a luminous phenomenon caused by different forms of refraction of light, how a rainbow on the surface – just be detected on the skin of Golden moles.

In addition to the "bright eyes" of nocturnal mammals, the discovery marks the first evidence of iridescence in mammals. And another surprise: the Golden moles are completely blind.

"They are very silky and has almost a metallic look and bright with colors ranging from blue to green," said co-author of the study, Matthew Shawkey.

Shawkey thought in studying the Golden moles after an alumna it, Holly Snyder, wrote his thesis on the iridescence. Snyder is the main author of the new study.

So it was accomplished, scientists took by four specimens of the Mole. Using highly technological equipment such as electron microspia, they analyzed the structures of hair, even the smallest elements.

And they determined that by iridescent are Yes. Then discovered that each by has a flattened format with little cuticular scale, which offers a good surface for the reflection. The scales form multiple layers of light.

Optical models suggest that these layers act as reflectors that produce the color from the interference of light. The sensitivity of this mechanism explains the variety of colors.

What remains a mystery is why blind animals have this by so captivating.

The ancestors of moles had vision, then it is possible that the iridescence is a legacy of those times. "However, these animals are already pretty far from its ancestors, then there has to be some kind of selective pressure to keep its color intact," comments Shawkey.

Another possibility is that the away predators. But Shawkey says that the brightness "would leave them more attracted", generating the reverse effect. Moles are not poisonous, so the color does not serve as a warning of danger.

The researchers actually think the iridescence is a product of the composition, since its structure allows animals a good circulation through the mud and sand.

"Many of the nanostructures that produce iridescent colors have optical properties such as stiffness and repelling water," explains Shawkey. "In the case of moles, clearly there is a communication function, then is a product of by".

The iridescence existed for at least 50 million years, since with this unique coloring beetles were discovered. An iridescent bird, with at least 40 million years ago, was also documented as well as old shells. Today some birds, snakes and fish have the phenomenon.

In the future, Shawkey and his team expect to study better the iridescence, and enter your function in moles and other species.

The monkeys take complex decisions

For many monkeys are stupid and simple, however, increasingly, scientists have evidence otherwise. A recent study with four species of great apes revealed that are able to act by analyzing your chances of success and make decisions more sophisticated than previously thought.

The researchers, whose work was published in the scientific journal PLoS ONE, performed his experiment with bonobos, gorillas, orangutans, and chimpanzees. Presented to the animals two bananas: the lowest was always in the same place and the largest was hidden each time in a different location. The apes were taking decisions based on the probability of success. Chose the smaller banana as more uncertain was the place where obscured the great, that is, the lower was their probability of guessing correctly.

Furthermore, chimpanzees and orangutans were more likely to take risky decisions, while gorillas and bonobos were more cautos in his behavior. This study confirms the idea that the mental activity of apes is much more complex than previously thought.

Scientists manufacture ants "super soldiers".

When eight soldier ants, with bizarre giant heads, were collected in a wild colony of New York, scientists knew that they had found something interesting. The discovery of these giant versions, whose job it is to defend the nest, led researchers to create their own super ants soldiers with the help of hormones, and so understand how the ants, and possibly other social insects, acquire specific forms to work only in the colonies.
What happened is that these ants were abnormal in an ancestral State, one that does not appear to be, apparently, in accidental cases. This phenomenon happens occasionally in some places, as in whales that develop human ancestors or members with tails.
"Already we know for a long time that this type of error occurs," says one of the study's scientists, Abouheif Ehad. "What we are showing for the first time is that there is a potential ancestor, and when provoked by this potential can be released to increase the evolution".
Meet the super soldiers
The species Pheidole morrisi, collected in New York, has normally two types of Ant worker: the smallest, responsible for health care, food, feed and care for eggs and larvae of the Queen; and the soldier, who defend the nest and use their large Mandibles to break seeds brought by the other.
This species does not have super soldiers, but the loggerhead resemble ants that exist in eight species in South America and Northern Mexico. All nine species belong to the genus Pheidole, which houses about 1100 species.
So it makes sense that the "aberrations" reveal something about the origin of the super soldiers among the other eight species.
Fabricating a super soldier
To reveal this mystery, the researchers, led by Rajendhran Rajakumar, observed the development of larvae of super soldiers in two of the eight species which normally produce. (The researchers wanted to study the behavior of p. morrisi collected, but they were killed in the laboratory by other ants).
The role of an Ant in the colony is determined by changes in the environment, during larval development. Adult ants can handle these changes, for example, by applying certain hormones, called pheromones, the larva.
In the first period of development, this change determines whether the egg will turn a Queen or worker, and secondly, determines if it's going to be a soldier or minor worker.
Just before the second change, scientists have applied a chemical that acts as a juvenile hormone in larvae of three species that do not produce super soldiers. This type of hormone is involved in transcription of environment data, such as nutrition, to the identity of the larva. To apply it artificially, researchers crossed the natural barriers and created super soldiers.
But these copies of laboratory were not equal to natural ants. As adults, the super lab soldiers continued with traces of wings, something common that lose when mature. "The potential to be a super soldier is there, but a little raw," says Abouheif.
The researchers also analyzed the expression of a gene involved in the development of the wings, and found similarities between the soldiers induced in the laboratory and the natural. They also found similar changes in two natural species of super soldiers, which indicates that rely on the same development engine.
So, for the super soldiers? They seem to have an obvious function of Defense. During an attack, they use their large heads to block the tunnels of the nest, keeping attackers out. Moreau suggests another reason for stocks of these great soldiers: grind seeds. They manage to grind some larger than the ordinary soldiers.
A genealogical tree of mystery
The research may help solve the mystery of the origin of these super soldiers. A study of Corrie Moreau, revealed that one of the species with super soldiers are near the base of the family tree very near Pheidole, Ant ancestor. The other species with alternative soldiers are scattered by the tree.
According to Moreau, there are two possible explanations for this arrangement: or each developed their own ways to create super soldiers, or the mechanism has evolved from a common ancestor between 35 and 60 million years ago. The work of the team of Abouheif points to the second, that the super soldiers dating from the base of the tree.
The implications go beyond the ants. "The question becomes: ' all insects use a path similar to that of ants with giant head or is this group's special," he says. "This suggests that we should look for paths preserved of evolution, through the tree of life."

Insects like you have never seen before.

The insects are the most diverse group of animals on Earth, with approximately 1 million species described, more than all other groups of animals together. It is estimated that there are 200 million insects for every human being and some tingling can contain more than 20 million individuals, i.e. almost two populations of the city of São Paulo there in your backyard. The insects are characterised by having one pair of antennae, three pairs of legs and (not necessarily) two pairs of wings.

As stated previously, the insects are part of the most diverse group of animals on the planet. Although there is a consensus among entomologists, it is estimated that there are from 5 to 10 million different species, with 1 million already catalogued.

The most interesting thing about these animals is that they can be found in nearly all ecosystems on the planet, although only a small number of species have adapted to marine life.

Just to have an idea of this diversity, almost entirely unknown, there are approximately 5 thousand species of Odonata (dragonflies), 20 thousand of Orthoptera (grasshoppers and crickets), 170 thousand of Lepidoptera (butterflies), 120 thousand of Diptera (flies), 82 thousand Hemipteros (bed bugs and aphids), 350 thousand of Coleoptera (beetles) and 110 thousand of Hymenópteros (bees, wasps and ants). Is soft or want more? This post makes a small defendant of interesting images of this class of animals.

Dolphins ' piggy back ' on humpback whales.

Many species interact with their wild predators, but this is not to say that the meeting ends in tragedy. Recent meetings between humpback whales and dolphins showed the playful and fun side of these interactions.
In two different locations in Hawaii, scientists observed dolphins "riding" on the heads of whales. Whales raised dolphins up and out of the water, and then they slipped back down.
The two species seem to cooperate in the activity, and do not show signs of aggression or suffering. Whales and dolphins of Hawaiian waters interact often, but a fun social activity like this is extremely rare among the species.

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